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Stem Cell Treatment for Breast Cancer


Breast cancer is a form of cancer that begins in the breast cells. It is more frequent in women, although it can also occur in men. Symptoms of breast cancer can include a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, changes in the size or shape of the breast, changes to the skin on the breast, such as dimpling or puckering, and discharge from the nipple.

Risk factors for breast cancer include being female, increasing age, a family history of breast cancer, and exposure to certain chemicals or radiation. Early detection and treatment can improve outcomes for those with breast cancer. 


How stem cells are used to treat breast cancer? 

Stem cells are a type of cell that can develop into different types of cells in the body. In the context of breast cancer, researchers are exploring the use of stem cells to better understand the disease and to develop new treatments.

Some studies have suggested that cancer stem cells may play a role in the development and progression of breast cancer and that targeting these cells may be a way to treat the disease more.

Additionally, stem cells are being studied as a potential method for regenerating breast tissue after surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential of stem cell therapy in the treatment of breast cancer. 


How do stem cells be used to treat breast cancer? 

Several ways stem cells are being researched for the treatment of breast cancer. Here are a few examples: 

  1. Stem cell-based immunotherapy: Researchers are investigating the use of stem cells to boost the immune system’s ability to fight cancer. This approach involves removing stem cells from a patient’s bone marrow or blood, genetically modifying them to target cancer cells, and then infusing them back into the patient’s body. 

  2. Stem cell-based tissue engineering: Researchers are studying the use of stem cells to grow new breast tissue to replace tissue that has been removed due to cancer. This approach uses stem cells to generate new breast tissue in a laboratory and then transplant the tissue into the patient. 

  3. Stem cell-based drug delivery: Researchers are exploring the use of stem cells to deliver chemotherapy drugs directly to cancer cells. This approach involves genetically modifying stem cells to seek out and bind to cancer cells, and then loading the stem cells with chemotherapy drugs. 

  4. Stem cell-based gene therapy: Researchers are using stem cells to deliver therapeutic genes to cancer cells to correct genetic defects that are driving the growth of the tumor. 

It’s important to note that these are experimental treatments that are currently being researched and are not yet widely available. More research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of these treatments before they can be used in clinical practice. 


Does stem cell therapy work for breast cancer? 

Stem cell therapy is a promising area of research for the treatment of breast cancer, but it is still considered experimental and is not yet widely available as a treatment option.

Stem cells can self-renew and differentiate into various types of cells, which makes them a potential tool for regenerating healthy tissue and fighting cancer. Some studies have shown that stem cells can help to reduce the size of tumors in breast cancer patients and may improve overall survival. 

Researchers are investigating various types of stem cells, including adult stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, for their potential to treat breast cancer. Some of these studies are in the preclinical stage and ongoing clinical trials are needed to further evaluate the safety and efficacy of these treatments. 

It’s important to note that stem cell therapy is not yet a standard treatment for breast cancer and more research is needed before it can be widely used. If you’re considering stem cell therapy for breast cancer, it’s important to speak with your doctor and carefully weigh the potential benefits and risks. 


What is the eligibility to get stem cell treatment for breast cancer? 

Eligibility for stem cell treatment for breast cancer will vary depending on the specific treatment being considered and the stage of cancer. 

For example, some stem cell-based immunotherapies are being tested in the early stages of breast cancer, while others are being tested in advanced stages.

Some trials may be open to patients who have not responded to other treatments, while others may be open to patients regardless of their treatment history. 

Additionally, some stem cell therapies may only be available to patients who meet certain criteria, such as having a certain type of breast cancer or having certain genetic characteristics. 

It’s important to note that stem cell therapy for breast cancer is still considered experimental and is not yet widely available as a treatment option.

If you’re considering stem cell therapy, it’s important to speak with your doctor and carefully weigh the potential benefits and risks. Your doctor can provide more information on the specific stem cell treatments available and help you determine if you’re eligible for any clinical trials. 


What to Expect After Stem Cell Therapy for Breast Cancer? 

The specific experience after stem cell therapy for breast cancer will depend on the type of therapy being used and the stage of cancer. However, here are some general things that a patient can expect: 

  • Recovery time: Depending on the type of stem cell therapy, recovery time can vary. Some therapies, such as stem cell-based immunotherapy, may have a shorter recovery time and allow patients to return to normal activities relatively quickly. Other therapies, such as stem cell-based tissue engineering, may require a longer recovery. 

  • Side effects: Some side effects that can occur after stem cell therapy include fatigue, swelling, pain or discomfort at the injection site, fever, and chills. These side effects are generally mild and should subside within a few days after the treatment. 

  • Monitoring: After the treatment, patients will be closely monitored by their medical team, including regular check-ups, imaging tests, and blood tests to monitor the progress of cancer, and the safety and efficacy of the treatment. 

  • Long-term effects: The long-term effects of stem cell therapy for breast cancer are still being studied. It’s important to keep in mind that stem cell therapy is still considered experimental and more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of the treatment. 

It’s important to note that stem cell therapy for breast cancer is still considered experimental and is not yet widely available as a treatment option.

If you’re considering stem cell therapy, it’s important to speak with your doctor and carefully weigh the potential benefits and risks. Your doctor can provide more information on the specific stem cell treatments available and help you determine if you’re eligible for any clinical trials. 

Posted by, magneto
January 17, 2023

Breast Reconstruction Surgery After Mastectomy


Breast cancer and its treatment options 

Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in women. When the breast cells grow rapidly and uncontrollably, it is said to be breast cancer.

There could be several reasons which could cause breast cancer including genetic variation, exposure to radiation, lifestyle habits, older age, etc.  

There are many treatment options available for breast cancer nowadays. Some of the commonly used techniques are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

These methods can be used either as the main treatment method or adjacent to other methods to cure cancer. Major surgery is used to remove the tumor from the breast.  

Mastectomy is a surgery of removing all the breast tissues from the breast to remove cancerous cells from the body. It is majorly used as an objective method to treat breast cancer.

It not only helps to remove cancerous cells from the body but also helps to control the spread of cancer in other regions of the body.  

After mastectomy or removal of the whole breast, it is common for the patient to go under reconstruction of the breast.

The reconstruction can be done immediately after the surgery or delayed for some time, giving the body enough time to heal. 

This article mainly focuses on the reconstruction of the breast after mastectomy surgery.

There are several types of reconstruction methods. Therefore, it must be kept in mind to consult your doctor before any reconstruction surgery as every individual has a different case.  


Reconstruction options 

There are different ways to get a breast reconstructed after surgery. Depending on the patient’s health condition and preference, the doctor will suggest the correct type of reconstruction method. Some of the commonly used types of methods to reconstruct breasts are: 


  • Using Implants –

Silicone implants and saline implants are commonly used to reconstruct the breast after mastectomy. You may have heard about them as cosmetic surgeries but in the medical field, these implants hold a lot more value than in other industries.

Most mastectomy is performed to preserve the majority of breast skin. These implants are placed under the skin to reconstruct the breast. Silicone implants are mostly preferred by patients as it seems real and the risk of them breaking is less than saline implants. It can be done during mastectomy surgery.  


  • Using Flaps –

Tissue flaps are taken from different parts of the body of the patient to replace the breast tissues in this process of reconstruction. Tissues from organs such as the abdomen, thighs, or buttocks are taken to rebuild the breast of a patient. Eventually, these flaps will act as breast tissue as they contain natural skin and other contents.  


  • Rebuilding nipple and areola –

After the reconstruction of the breast, the nipple and areola are reconstructed after 3 to 4 months when the body has healed. To construct a nipple, tissues are extracted from the reconstructed breast and the areola is constructed with an ink tattoo. In some cases, the areola can be rebuilt using other tissue as well as using ink tattoos. 


Eligibility for reconstruction 

Even after mastectomy any patient can get reconstruction surgery done but several factors must be fulfilled to make a patient eligible for the procedure. Some of these factors are: 


  • Stage of cancer –

Depending on the stage of cancer, the doctors plan treatment for breast cancer patients. Patients with early-stage breast cancer can be treated with mastectomy only whereas later-stage breast cancer patients might require radiation therapy after surgery.

It is done so to kill all the remaining cancerous cells in the body and avoid remission. Reconstruction surgery requires a lot of time to heal and hence it can hinder radiation therapy.

Therefore, patients with early-stage breast cancer can get reconstruction surgery immediately after or during the mastectomy but later-stage breast cancer patients must wait for a longer duration of time. 


  • The overall health of the patient –

Having an overall healthy body is important for reconstruction surgery. Patients who already suffer from chronic lifestyle diseases have to delay the procedure of reconstruction until they are completely healthy.

Some of the diseases that may interfere with the reconstruction process are diabetes, hypertension, obesity, cardiac disorder, etc. consult your doctor if you suffer from such diseases before going for reconstruction surgery. 


  • Body mass index of the patient –

Patients who have a BMI which is more than 40 are not considered to be a good candidate for reconstruction surgery, as there is a potential risk of failure of the process. Although these patients can consult their doctor for any other alternatives and possibilities of getting the surgery done. 


How can cancer rounds help you? 

Cancer Rounds can assist you to get a second opinion from the best cancer specialists in India. You can send us a query and our team will contact you within 24 hours.

You can ask any of your questions related to cancer and its treatment with the top oncologist in India. We are associated with several multi-specialty hospitals and healthcare institutes that offer world-class facilities. 


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Posted by, magneto
November 17, 2022

Triple Negative Breast Cancer



Triple-negative breast cancer is a rare type of breast cancer that affects women.

It is a rare but aggressive type of breast cancer. Around 10% of breast cancer cases belong to this category. As being a rare type of cancer, it is also very challenging to treat triple-negative breast cancer.  

As the name suggests, triple-negative breast cancer is referent to the type of breast cancer which does not have three associated markers. These three associated bio-makers are estrogen, progesterone hormones, and HER2 protein. These biomarkers are generally present in other breast cancers. 

This cancer requires special treatment hence these types of biomarkers are important to identify beforehand.

Triple-negative breast cancer is aggressive and can spread much more rapidly than other types of cancer.  

This article mainly focuses on triple-negative breast cancer and its diagnosis, treatment, and survival rate. Continue reading to know more. 


Who is at risk? 

Mostly Black and Latina women are more prone to triple-negative breast cancer than white women.

Women of or below 40 years are at more risk of getting triple-negative breast cancer. Even though it’s a rare type of cancer, it is an aggressive one. It can be a fetal cause of death in many women worldwide.

Especially women with a genetic mutation in the BRCA1 gene are often observed in breast cancer patients. It is a gene that prevents cancer cells from growing.

A mutation in this gene can stop the cancer cells from growing which will cause tumor formation. It is one of the major reasons for having triple-negative breast cancer. 


What are the common symptoms? 

There are several common symptoms of triple-negative breast cancer which are similar to any type of breast cancer symptoms. Some of the symptoms are: 

  1. Lump in breast 
  2. Swelling in the breast or nipple 
  3. Chapped skin around the nipple 
  4. Fluid discharge 
  5. Inward nipples 
  6. Swollen lymph nodes 
  7. Redness on breast 
  8. Pain in breast 
  9. Nipple or broken skin is scaly or flaky 
  10. Skin dimpling 

These are some common breast cancer symptoms that indicate the presence of a tumor inside the breast. Early diagnosis can still save many lives. Consult your doctor if you experience these symptoms. 


Diagnosis of cancer 

Diagnosis is a process by which the doctor correctly identifies a disease and plans treatment accordingly. Nowadays many advanced technologies are developed which can help doctors to get a detailed view of the tumor and identify the stage and severity of the tumor.  

  • It has been said that the first test for any suspected breast cancer case is a mammogram. This is the test that is done to examine any suspicious lump or tumor inside the breast. 

  • Apart from that biopsy is done to examine the type of cells in the tumor. It takes a small sample from the tumor of the patient and then examines it under the microscope to identify the type of cells. 

  • If the cells found in the sample are cancerous, another test occurs to identify the correct type of breast cancer. These tests involve checking the presence of estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 protein. The absence of all three represents triple-negative breast cancer. 

  • These are other common tests that are done, unlike these tests, some imaging tests are done to identify the stage and severity of cancer in the breast. These types of tests involve magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, CT scan, or PET scan. 


Treatment options 

There are several treatment options available for breast cancer.

Apart from traditional methods of cancer treatment, there are multiple new technologies arriving every day.

Innovative methods and new drugs are coming onto the market which makes the treatment more reliable and efficient. Some of the most common ways of cancer treatment are: 

  • Surgery/mastectomy- The surgery to remove a tumor from the breast or surrounding tissues can be done as the main method of treatment. In many cases, the whole breast is removed which is known as mastectomy while in many cases a lump is removed which is known as lumpectomy. Depending upon the stage of cancer and how much part of the breast is affected, the doctor will decide the type of surgery. 


  • Chemotherapy – The use of drugs to kill the cancerous cells in the body is known as chemotherapy. Either chemotherapy is used alone as the main type of treatment or before surgery to reduce the size of the tumor in the body. There are several types of drugs that are used for chemotherapy and these drugs are of high doses that can cause multiple side effects as well.  


  • Radiation therapy – Radiation therapy is the use of high-beam radiation that kills the cancerous cells in the body to control the growth of tumors. Radiation is often used after surgery to kill the remaining cancer cells that can be left after surgery.  


Prognosis and survival rate 

After getting the treatment it is likely that you will experience certain side effects, which involve nausea, vomiting, pain, hairlessness, fatigue, or mental fog which is associated with chemotherapy.

These side effects can be managed exactly after recess. Although every patient may experience some different side effects it is always advised to consult your doctor before taking any medication.  

The 5-year survival rate of triple-negative breast cancer is around 90% for early-stage cancer.

This implies the stage in which cancer has not yet spread. If cancer spreads to surrounding lymph nodes or other tissue the survival rate decreases to 60%.  If cancer has spread to other organs, it is difficult to treat cancer and hence the survival rate drops to 15%. 

Therefore, it is advised to visit a doctor as soon as possible if you experience any symptoms and to avoid such misconceptions regarding the tumor.  

Posted by, magneto
November 3, 2022

Myths And Facts About Breast Lumps And Cancer

Breast Cancer


Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among Indian women, with a rate of 25.8 per 100,000 women and a mortality rate of 12.7 per 100,000 women.

Not only the numbers are increasing each day but also the myths and doubts about breast cancer. It is recommended to do a breast self-examination monthly in about 3 to 5 days after the period starts.

When you feel a lump in your breast or you experience any breast cancer symptoms, it’s understandable to be concerned. But don’t panic and jump to conclusions. Instead, act wisely and call your doctor to discuss.


Myths About Breast Cancer

Always make sure you are away from these popular 7 myths of breast cancer and know the facts.


Myth No. 1: A breast lump Is certainly cancer

Eight out of ten breast lumps felt by women aren’t cancer. A cyst (a sac) or a fibroadenoma (an abnormal growth that isn’t cancer) are the most common types. During a woman’s menstrual cycle, some lumps appear and disappear.

It’s impossible to tell what it is based on how it feels. You should consult a doctor to know in detail about the lump.


Myth No. 2: A single test can confirm breast cancer

More tests, such as an MRI, ultrasound, or a follow-up mammogram, may be required to examine the lump again.

A biopsy, in which a doctor takes a small sample of the lump to test it, may also be required. Regular examination is the ultimate key to detecting/preventing breast cancer.


Myth No. 3: Breast cancer lumps are always painless

Certainly not. Breast cancer isn’t always painful, and having breast pain doesn’t rule out the possibility of cancer.

When there is a lump, inflammatory breast cancer symptoms such as redness, swelling, tenderness, and warmth in the breast, can be painful.


Myth No. 4: You can’t have cancer if you find a lump while breastfeeding

Breastfeeding reduces your chances of getting breast cancer, but it can still happen. Don’t ignore a lump if you notice it while breastfeeding. Always discuss with your doctor and go for a suggestive diagnostic test.


Myth No. 5: A breast lump can’t be cancer if you’re young

That is not the case. Breast lumps should be self-examined every month as mentioned earlier about 3-5 days after the period starts at any age.

Even though the majority of women diagnosed with breast cancer are past menopause or over the age of 50 years, stats are rapidly changing and a lump in the breast can be cancerous in a younger woman too.


Myth No. 6:  A smaller size of the lump is less likely to be cancerous than a larger size lump

This is certainly not true. Breast lumps irrespective of the size should be discussed with the oncologist or the gynaecologist and should be considered for suggestive diagnostic tests.

At times, small lumps may progress to aggressive cancers and shouldn’t be ignored.


Myth No, 7: If you don’t have a family history of breast cancer, a lump is probably harmless

If no one in their family has had breast cancer, many women believe they aren’t at risk. That is not the case. According to the American Cancer Society, only about 15% of women with breast cancer have a relative who has had the disease.

Whether or not breast cancer runs in your family, have all lumps examined by a doctor.


For more informative content on various types of cancer, its diagnosis, queries and breast cancer treatment in India, send us a query or visit our website

Posted by, magneto
February 9, 2022
breast cancer


Breast Conservation Surgery

Breast-conservation surgery (BCS) and Oncoplastic breast surgery is a safe option for most female with early breast cancer.  

Yes, its recently, innovations in stream of oncoplastic techniques that have aided the cancer patients with reduced surgical trauma and a conservative approach that again is capable of preserving the breast. 

In spite of the most apt managing options of primary closure, the oncoplastic breast surgery or BCS defects are encountered with the aesthetic outcome – that may be unpredictable.  

In this lieu the oncology team of patient approaches the arm of Oncoplastic reconstruction. The oncoplastic reconstruction can itself be begin at the time of BCS (immediate). Or oncoplastic surgery can also be followed by oncoplastic reconstitution that is done in weeks (delayed-immediate) or months to years afterwards (delayed).  

It is essential here to mention that in the cases where immediate reconstruction is done, the surgical process is smooth as the steps are associated in one operative setting.  

As per the data reported by best oncologists offering best breast cancer treatment in India enlist that the 5-year survival of BCS with radiation is not statistically different in contrast to mastectomy offered alone as conventional treatment in patients with Stage I or II breast cancer. 

Statistical scoops also alarm that about 10% to 30% of patients submitted to BCS are not satisfied with the aesthetic outcome that include the clinical aspects related to skin pigmentation changes, telangiectasia, and skin fibrosis. In the glandular tissue, local radiation causes fibrosis and retraction. 

Talking about the raising attention to oncoplastic procedures – that offers the immediate application of plastic breast surgery techniques that provide a wider local excision allows to achieve the goals of a better breast shape and symmetry  

It is well accepted that oncoplastic breast surgery referred as the modern oncoplastic breast surgery combines principles of oncologic and plastic surgery techniques. This combination of principles of oncology and plastic surgery allowed the doctors to obtain oncologic ally sound and aesthetically pleasing results.  

What the oncoplastic techniques are related to? – the oncoplastic technique are related to volume displacement or replacement procedures.  

Yes, oncoplastic approach can be started at the time of BCS (immediate), weeks (delayed-immediate) or months to years afterwards (delayed) as well. The main advantages of the technique utilized should include reproducibility and patient satisfaction.  

This surely includes the main goal of low interference with the oncologic treatment and long-term results.  

Another aspect of oncoplastic breast surgery being preferred is the possibility of accomplishing negative resection margin. As the immediate reconstruction allows for wider local tumor excision, potentially reducing the incidence of margin involvement and this idea emphasize on permitting larger resections, with a superior mean volume of the specimen and negative margins. 

Possibly an ideal procedure or recommended guidelines does not exist and each case should be planned individually. As any surgical technique, all these goals are probably not met by any single procedure as each case with individual technique presents particular advantages for their indications, tumor location limitations, vascular pedicle, additional skin and glandular resections due to compromised margins, and resultant scar.  

Clinical results of oncoplastic breast surgery- are better and we also cannot neglect that immediate BCS reconstruction is challenging for oncological and plastic surgeons. The data recently supports that the oncoplastic approach associated with BCS can be considered as safe as mastectomy in tumours less than 2 cm and possibly safer than the BCS.  Another important issue in limitations associated is related to the complication rates and the timing of reconstruction; as in BCS with delayed reconstruction complication rates have been shown to be higher than immediate reconstruction. 

For more details and second opinion on breast cancer treatment – please contact Cancer Rounds. 

Posted by, magneto
February 3, 2022

Parameters To Be Considered Wisely Before Choosing Breast Cancer Treatment Oncologist

breast cancer treatment

After being diagnosed with breast cancer, each patient and his/her loved being need to approach the best oncologists for the best breast cancer treatment in India. In the process of choosing an oncologist’s team for treatment, to get the best care, need to consider certain parameters. The treating team for breast cancer treatment includes specialists such as a breast surgeon, a medical oncologist, a radiation oncologist, a plastic surgeon, and a genetic counselor.

The process of searching for doctors might seem overwhelming. But it needs research and in spite of feeling tempted to rush into decisions, so you can start treatment as soon as possible – the first and foremost need is to remain calm and approach the best cancer hospital with the best oncologists.

Now you must be worried that what you need to keep in mind you need to carefully select the doctors that are right for you and your patients.


Following parameters shall be wisely approached to consider when selecting each of the key members of the cancer treatment team:

1. Do oncologists and team members communicate well?

Communication is an essential part to be considered. As the treating oncologist explains things in a way you can understand, listens to you and/or the patient, and takes your concerns seriously. Remember the treating doctor should not act dismissive or threatened when you bring up treatment options you’ve researched or you mention the second opinion issues in your mind.

If possible, bring a loved being or your caretaker along to your appointments to help you form an understanding bond with to doctor. When you’re anxious or upset, it’s hard to catch and judge the interaction.


2. Do they have the experience and they are specialists in the field?

Make sure your oncologists have the right training, degrees, and experience. For example, choosing the best oncologist who specializes in breast cancer treatment rather than in treating several kinds of cancer- is a necessity to be considered. Also, see if a doctor is following advances and innovations in the stream. As if he can help you enroll in clinical trials and treatment approaches that are relevant to your situation.


3. Is their paramedical and office staff responsive?

Pay attention to whether the oncologist’s team and the doctor’s office staff are helpful, and return/answer your calls. If setting up appointments is too frustrating, that is not a green signal. However, try talking with your doctor about any problems and if still you don’t find a solution- then you may switch practices.


4. Could you follow up with them over the long term considering the distance from your living space and your economic status?

Your oncologists might be working with you extra particularly if you have metastatic breast cancer- an advanced-stage disease. This indicates that you are taking hormonal therapy on a long-term basis, or if you have an inherited gene mutation then in this case it’s best to choose the best oncologist who is going to be in practice for a long time and isn’t close to retiring. Also, the treating oncologists must not be in a far place and in a position to understand your economic status.


5. Do you want to keep looking for another doctor for a second opinion?

Ultimately, your goal should be to get the best care or provide the best care to your patient. Right from the beginning of your treatment don’t hesitate to get a second opinion if you’re lacking confidence in a particular doctor’s treatment recommendations, expertise, or communication skills. Asking for opinions from other doctors can also help and don’t hide it from your current doctor.

Opting for the best cancer treatment in India, the best oncologists, or the second opinion – please consider contacting Cancer Rounds.

Posted by, magneto
January 31, 2022

BRCA1 and BRCA2: Potential Hereditary Breast Cancer Genes

Breast cancer

Yes, the most common cause of potential hereditary breast cancer is a mutation of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. It is observed that these mutations can be inherited copies of either gene from a parent, and the individual is in the zone of a higher risk for breast cancer. In the physiological process, the mentioned BRCA1 AND BRCA2 genes make proteins to check and repair DNA. But on another side of the abnormal point when genes are mutated, can pose an abnormal cell growth or cancer.

Incidence of BRCA mutation: prevalence of pathogenic BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants has been reported- approximately 1 in 400 individuals in the general population. All individuals have BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, but only some carry mutations in those genes. In case, either of the parents has a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation, offspring have a 50% chance of carrying the gene mutation. In genetic testing, BRCA positive mutation predicts risk of cancer increases and indicates a higher risk of developing breast cancer and ovarian cancer in women and the risk for breast and prostate cancer in men, as well as other cancers. If we are discussing epidemiology, it is a necessity to mention that a hereditary breast cancer accounts for only 5-10 percent of all breast cancers.

It is significant here to mention that females diagnose with either BRCA1 AND BRCA2 gene mutations are more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer at a younger age. As we race to talk about genetic testing, the younger the age of diagnosis for BRCA positive mutation via genetic testing more appropriate the candidate is for BRCA1/2 pedigree. This pedigree unravels the classic features of the BRCA pathogenic variant across three generations. This will detail the result in organogram depicting/predicting affected family members with breast cancer and young age at onset

Location of BRCA1/2 and association with gender mutations & breast cancer: As per the data, the 17q21.3 region contained the BRCA1 gene and the BRCA2 gene is located on the 13q12.3 regions. Also, another fact as per the observational studies reported is that male breast cancer is unlikely to be directly caused by BRCA1 mutation alone.

BRCA 1/2 and tumorigenesis: recent data indicates that about 55 to 65% of BRCA1 mutation carriers and approximately 45% of BRCA2 mutation carriers develop breast cancer by 6 to 7 decades of life.

BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumor suppressor genes, responsible to slow down cell division, repair DNA mistakes, or tell cells when to die in the physiological process. But in the mutation of the tumor suppressor gene or anti-oncogene, a loss or reduction in its function is base of tumorigeneses resulting in cancer.

Besides predicting the potential hereditary breast cancer recent ray of hope in breast cancer treatment regimen and follow-up is the role of BRCA mutations on breast cancer prognosis. As per data reported 3.4% BRCA carriers, display a not good overall survival. But collectively independent BRCA mutation is an inadequate outcome predictor.

It is because a clinical diagnosis of hereditary breast cancer also consider one or more of the features are present in family-like early-onset breast cancer, two breast primary or breast, and other related cancer (ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal) in a single individual, and then a member of a family with a known BRCA1; etc.. in the recommended guidelines for genetic testing, counselling, and risk assessment. Which will be followed by primary prevention strategies to reduce breast cancer risk.

Breast cancer treatment in cases with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations: chemotherapy a conventional tool of treatment in the world of cancer uses Taxanes that are less sensitive to BRCA1 mutation carriers. Also, platinum agents with taxanes in neoadjuvant chemotherapy with enhanced response are predicted in hereditary BRCA1-associated breast cancer.

Targeted drug therapy- PARP inhibitors against BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutated genes are beneficial in the treatment of patients that are carriers of germline BRCA mutations.

The Breast cancer treatment cost in India typically is covered in the range from INR 5 to 6 Lakhs, including radiotherapy, surgery, testing, and targeted therapy spike the range up to 20 Lakh, including six cycles of chemotherapy for cancer treatment, genetic testing, genetic counseling, pedigree chart analysis. (For details please contact us)

Future considerations- In lieu of BRCA mutation will be able to provide valuable insight in terms of prevention and treatment options.

Posted by, Medical Team, Cancer Rounds
January 11, 2022

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