Cancer Related Archives - Cancer Rounds

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Gallbladder – Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

 

Gallbladder cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the gallbladder, a small, pear-shaped organ located below the liver. It is a rare type of cancer and symptoms include abdominal pain, jaundice, and a lump in the abdomen. 

Treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Early detection is key for the best chance of successful treatment. 

 

 Things to know about gallbladder cancer 

  1. Rare: Gallbladder cancer is a rare form of cancer. 
  2. Symptoms: Symptoms of gallbladder cancer can include abdominal pain, jaundice, and a lump in the abdomen. 
  3. Risk factors: Risk factors for gallbladder cancer include age, gender (women are more at risk), gallstones, family history, and certain medical conditions. 
  4. Detection: Early detection is key for the best chance of successful treatment, so regular check-ups and scans are important. 
  5. Treatment: Treatment options for gallbladder cancer include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. 
  6. Prognosis: The prognosis for gallbladder cancer depends on many factors, including the stage of cancer and the overall health of the patient. 
  7. Lifestyle: Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including a balanced diet and regular exercise, may help reduce the risk of developing gallbladder cancer. 

 

Symptoms of gallbladder cancer 

  • Abdominal pain: A persistent or worsening pain in the upper right side of the abdomen. 
  • Jaundice: Yellowing of the skin and eyes caused by the buildup of bilirubin in the bloodstream. 
  • Nausea and vomiting: Feeling like throwing up. 
  • Loss of appetite: A lack of desire to eat food. 
  • Unexpected weight loss: A sudden, unintended loss of weight. 
  • Fatigue: A feeling of exhaustion and weakness. 
  • Abdominal swelling: A noticeable increase in the size of the abdomen. 
  • Dark urine: Urine that is a dark yellow or brown color. 
  • Light-colored stools: Stools that are pale or clay-colored instead of the usual brown color. 

It’s important to note that these symptoms can also be caused by other conditions, so it’s crucial to seek medical advice if you are experiencing any of these symptoms. 

 

Diagnosis of gallbladder cancer 

The following tests and procedures can be used to diagnose gallbladder cancer: 

  1. Physical exam: The doctor will examine the patient’s abdomen for any signs of swelling or tenderness. 
  2. Blood tests: Blood tests can be used to check for elevated levels of certain substances, such as bilirubin, that can indicate the presence of cancer. 
  3. Ultrasound: An ultrasound creates pictures of the interior of the body by using high-frequency sound waves.
  4. CT scan: A CT scan uses X-rays and computer technology to create detailed images of the inside of the body. 
  5. MRI: An MRI uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of the inside of the body. 
  6. Cholangiography: A type of X-ray test that involves injecting a contrast dye into the bile ducts to make them visible on the images. 
  7. Biopsy: A biopsy is a procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the suspicious area for examination under a microscope. 

It’s important to consult with a doctor to determine the best diagnostic approach based on individual circumstances. 

 

Treatment of gallbladder cancer  

The treatment options for gallbladder cancer may include: 

  • Surgery: The most common treatment for gallbladder cancer is surgery to remove the cancerous gallbladder (cholecystectomy). 
  • Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. It may be given before or after surgery. 
  • Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams, such as X-rays, to kill cancer cells. 
  • Targeted therapy: Targeted therapy uses drugs that target specific genes or proteins that help cancer cells grow. 
  • Palliative care: Palliative care is a treatment that focuses on relieving the symptoms and improving the quality of life for people with advanced cancer. 

The choice of treatment depends on various factors, such as the stage and location of cancer, the patient’s age and overall health, and personal preferences.

A team of healthcare professionals, including a surgeon, medical oncologist, and radiation oncologist, will work together to determine the best course of treatment. 

 

The prognosis for gallbladder cancer 

The prognosis for gallbladder cancer depends on several factors, including: 

  • Stage of cancer: The stage of cancer (how advanced it is) is the most important factor in determining the prognosis. 
  • Location of cancer: The location of cancer within the gallbladder can also affect the prognosis. 
  • Age and overall health: The patient’s age and overall health can also play a role in the prognosis. 
  • Treatment response: The response to treatment, such as surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, can also affect the prognosis. 

In general, the prognosis for early-stage gallbladder cancer is better than for advanced-stage cancer. With appropriate treatment, some patients may achieve long-term survival, while others may have a shorter prognosis.

It’s important to work closely with a healthcare team to understand the prognosis and available treatment options. 

Posted by, magneto
January 31, 2023

Types of cancers in children

 

Cancer in children refers to a group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells in the body. Childhood cancer is relatively rare, accounting for less than 1% of all cancer cases. 

The most common types of cancer in children are leukemia, brain, and nervous system tumors, lymphoma, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and Wilms tumor. These cancers can occur in various parts of the body and have different causes and risk factors. 

Symptoms of childhood cancer can vary depending on the type and location of the tumor but may include unexplained weight loss, fatigue, pain, and changes in skin, eyes, or nails. 

Treatment options for childhood cancer include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and stem cell transplant. The prognosis for childhood cancer varies depending on the type and stage of cancer, as well as the child’s overall health. 

It’s important to note that childhood cancer research is an active area of study, with new therapies and treatments being developed all the time. Early diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and supportive care can greatly improve the outcomes for children with cancer 

 

What are some of the types of cancers in children? 

Some of the most common types of cancer in children are: 

  1. Leukemia: Leukemia is a type of blood cancer that starts in the bone marrow and affects the production of white blood cells. It is the most common type of cancer in children. 
  2. Brain and nervous system tumors: Tumors that form in the brain and spinal cord are the second most common type of cancer in children. 
  3. Lymphoma: Lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, which is a network of vessels and glands that help to fight infection. It is the third most frequent kind of childhood cancer. 
  4. Neuroblastoma: This type of cancer forms in nerve tissue and is typically found in the adrenal glands or the neck, chest, or spine. 
  5. Rhabdomyosarcoma: Rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of cancer that forms in the muscle tissue. It can occur anywhere in the body but is most common in the head and neck, urinary and reproductive organs, and the arms and legs. 
  6. Wilms tumor: Wilms tumor is a type of kidney cancer that occurs primarily in children. 

It’s important to note that some of these cancers are rare, and treatment and prognosis may vary depending on the type, stage, and location of cancer, as well as the child’s overall health. 

 

Blood cancer 

Blood cancer in children, also known as pediatric blood cancer, refers to a group of cancer types that affect the blood, bone marrow, and lymphatic system in children.

The most common types of pediatric blood cancer are leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma. These cancers are caused by the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the blood and can affect a child’s ability to produce normal blood cells, leading to anemia, infections, and bleeding.

Treatment options for pediatric blood cancer include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplants, and surgery. The prognosis for pediatric blood cancer varies depending on the type and stage of cancer, as well as the child’s overall health. 

 

Brain and nervous system tumors 

Brain and nervous system tumors in children are a type of cancer that forms in the cells of the brain and spinal cord. They are the second most common type of cancer in children. Brain tumors can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous) and can occur in various parts of the brain and spinal cord. 

Symptoms of brain and nervous system tumors in children may include headache, nausea, vomiting, vision or hearing problems, changes in balance or coordination, changes in behavior or personality, and seizures. 

The treatment options for brain and nervous system tumors in children depend on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the child’s overall health. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. 

The prognosis for brain and nervous system tumors in children varies depending on the type and stage of the tumor, as well as the child’s overall health. Some tumors can be removed surgically with a good outcome, while others may require a combination of treatments and the prognosis may be poor. 

It’s important to note that brain and nervous system tumors in children are an active area of research, with new treatments and therapies being developed all the time. Early diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and supportive care can greatly improve the outcomes for children with brain and nervous system tumors. 

 

Neuroblastoma  

Neuroblastoma is a type of cancer that primarily affects children, typically under the age of 5. It develops from immature nerve cells, called neuroblasts, found in various parts of the body, most commonly in the adrenal glands (located above the kidneys) and in the nerve tissue that runs alongside the spinal cord.

Symptoms can include abdominal pain, swollen abdomen, a lump in the abdomen or neck, bone pain, and dark circles under the eyes. Treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy. The prognosis for neuroblastoma varies depending on the stage and aggressiveness of cancer, as well as the patient’s age and overall health. 

 

Rhabdomyosarcoma 

Rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of cancer that develops in the soft tissue, specifically in the cells that make up the muscles. It is the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma in children, and it can occur anywhere in the body, but it is most often found in the head and neck, the GI tract, legs and hands.

Symptoms can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but they can include pain, swelling, difficulty moving a limb, and a lump or mass that can be felt. 

Treatment for rhabdomyosarcoma typically involves a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. The prognosis for rhabdomyosarcoma depends on a variety of factors, including the stage of cancer, the patient’s age and overall health, and the response to treatment. 

It’s worth noting that for children’s cancer, the treatment modalities may have different side effects and long-term impacts than in adults, so it’s important to have a pediatric oncologist who specializes in treating children with cancer to make the best decisions for the child. 

 

Wilms tumor 

Wilms tumor, also known as nephroblastoma, is a type of cancer that develops in the kidneys, typically in children under the age of 5. Symptoms can include a lump or mass in the abdomen, abdominal pain, blood in the urine, and weight loss. 

Treatment for Wilms tumor typically involves a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Surgery is usually the first line of treatment and involves removing the affected kidney and surrounding tissue.

The prognosis for Wilms tumor is generally good, with a high rate of cure when the tumor is detected and treated early. As with other childhood cancers, it’s important to have a pediatric oncologist who specializes in treating children with cancer to make the best decisions for the child. 

Posted by, magneto
January 26, 2023

What are the modalities of cancer treatment

 

The process of diagnosing cancer typically involves a combination of medical tests and procedures, including physical exams, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI), and biopsies. Once a cancer diagnosis is confirmed, the treatment plan will be tailored to the individual patient and the specific type of cancer. 

The treatment options for cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, and hormone therapy.

Treatment will be determined by the type and stage of cancer, as well as the patient’s general condition. A mix of therapies may be employed in some circumstances. 

There are several treatment modalities for cancer, including surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, and hormone therapy.

The choice of treatment will depend on the type and stage of cancer, as well as the overall health of the patient.

In some cases, a combination of treatments may be used. To establish the appropriate course of therapy for an individual patient, it is critical to speak with a medical specialist. 

 

Cancer treatment modalities 

Cancer treatment refers to the various methods used to manage and potentially cure cancer. There are several different types of cancer treatment, including: 

  1. Surgery: The removal of the cancerous tissue through an operation. 
  2. Radiation therapy is the application of high-energy radiation to the killing of cancer cells.
  3. Chemotherapy is the use of pharmaceuticals to destroy cancer cells.
  4. Immunotherapy: The use of medications to boost the immune system’s ability to fight cancer. 
  5. Targeted therapy: The use of drugs to target specific proteins or genetic mutations that allow cancer cells to grow. 
  6. Hormone therapy: The use of medications to block the production or action of hormones that can fuel certain types of cancer. 

The choice of treatment will depend on the type and stage of cancer, as well as the overall health of the patient. In some cases, a combination of treatments may be used. It is essential to consult with a medical professional to determine the best course of treatment for an individual patient. 

 

 

Let’s discuss some of the commonly used methods in detail 

 

Surgery for cancer 

Surgery is a common treatment option for many types of cancer. The goal of surgery is to remove as much of the cancerous tissue as possible while preserving the surrounding healthy tissue. Several types of surgery may be used to treat cancer, including: 

  • Lumpectomy: The removal of a tumor and a small amount of surrounding tissue. 
  • Mastectomy: The removal of the entire breast, usually used to treat breast cancer. 
  • Radical prostatectomy: The removal of the entire prostate gland, usually used to treat prostate cancer. 
  • Whipple procedure: The removal of the head of the pancreas, the first part of the small intestine, the gallbladder, and the bile duct, usually used to treat pancreatic cancer. 
  • debulking surgery: The removal of as much of the tumor as possible, usually used to treat ovarian cancer. 

The type of surgery and the extent of the surgery will depend on the type and stage of cancer, as well as the overall health of the patient. The patient and their healthcare team will discuss the potential benefits and risks of surgery and decide on the best course of action. After surgery, the patient will typically need to recover in the hospital for several days and may need to undergo additional treatments such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy. 

 

Radiation therapy for cancer 

Radiation therapy, also known as radiotherapy, is a treatment option for cancer that uses high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells. It can be used to treat many types of cancer, including breast, lung, prostate, and brain cancer. 

There are two main types of radiation therapy: external beam radiation therapy and internal radiation therapy (brachytherapy). External beam radiation therapy is delivered by a machine outside the body and is typically given in daily treatment sessions over several weeks. Internal radiation therapy is delivered by placing a radioactive source inside the body, near cancer. 

Radiation therapy works by damaging the DNA of cancer cells, which leads to the death of these cells. It can also shrink tumors and relieve symptoms such as pain. 

Before starting radiation therapy, the patient will undergo a simulation to create a detailed map of the treatment area. This allows the radiation oncologist to plan the radiation doses to deliver the most precise treatment possible. During treatment, the patient will lie on a table while a machine delivers the radiation to the tumor.

The treatment is painless, and the side effects vary depending on the location of the tumor and the radiation dose. Common side effects include fatigue, skin irritation, and hair loss in the treatment area. 

It is important to note that radiation therapy is usually given in conjunction with other treatments such as surgery or chemotherapy. 

 

Chemotherapy for cancer 

Chemotherapy is a treatment option for cancer that uses drugs to kill cancer cells. It can be used to treat many types of cancer, including breast, lung, ovarian, and blood cancers. 

Chemotherapy drugs are given intravenously or orally, and they travel through the bloodstream to reach cancer cells throughout the body. These drugs work by interfering with the cancer cell’s ability to grow and divide, ultimately leading to their death. 

Chemotherapy is usually given in cycles, consisting of a period of treatment followed by a period of rest. The length of treatment and the number of cycles will depend on the type and stage of cancer, as well as the overall health of the patient. 

Side effects of chemotherapy vary depending on the drugs used and the individual patient. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection. Patients may also experience changes in taste or appetite. However, many of these side effects can be managed with medications and other treatments. 

It is important to note that chemotherapy is usually given in conjunction with other treatments such as surgery or radiation therapy. This can help to increase the effectiveness of the treatment and reduce the risk of recurrence. 

 

Before treatment begins, the patient and their healthcare team will discuss the potential benefits and risks of each treatment option and decide on the best course of action. After treatment, the patient will be closely monitored to assess the effectiveness of the treatment and to detect any recurrence of cancer.

Posted by, magneto
January 24, 2023

Different Types of Gynecological Cancer 

 

Gynecological cancers refer to cancers that affect the reproductive organs in women. They include cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, vaginal cancer, and vulvar cancer. 

These cancers can often be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Women need to undergo regular screenings and check-ups to detect these cancers early and increase the chances of successful treatment. 

 

Types of gynecological cancer 

There are several types of gynecological cancer, including: 

  1. Cervical cancer: This cancer starts in the cervix, the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. 
  2. Ovarian cancer: This cancer starts in the ovaries, the female reproductive organs that produce eggs and hormones. 
  3. Endometrial cancer: This cancer starts in the lining of the uterus, called the endometrium. 
  4. Vaginal cancer: This cancer starts in the vagina, the canal that connects the uterus to the outside of the body. 
  5. Vulvar cancer: This cancer starts in the vulva, the external female genital organs. 
  6. Fallopian tube cancer: This cancer starts in the fallopian tubes, the tubes that connect the ovaries to the uterus. 

It is important to note that early detection and prompt treatment can greatly improve the chances of survival for women with gynecological cancer. 

 

  • Cervical cancer 

Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the cervix, the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. It is caused by a virus called the human papillomavirus (HPV), which is a sexually transmitted infection. The most common symptoms of cervical cancer include abnormal vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, and pain during sexual intercourse. 

Cervical cancer typically progresses slowly and can be detected early through regular cervical cancer screenings, such as the Pap test and HPV test. If cervical cancer is caught early, it can often be treated successfully with surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy. 

Prevention of cervical cancer includes HPV vaccination, which can protect against the types of HPV that cause cervical cancer, and regular cervical cancer screenings, which can detect abnormal cells before they turn into cancer. 

 

  • Ovarian cancer 

Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the ovaries, the female reproductive organs that produce eggs and hormones. It is often referred to as the “silent killer” because it often has no symptoms in its early stages, making it difficult to detect. 

When symptoms do appear, they can include bloating, pelvic or abdominal pain, feeling full quickly, and frequent urination. Risk factors for ovarian cancer include age, family history of ovarian or breast cancer, and certain genetic mutations, such as BRCA1 or BRCA2. 

There are several types of ovarian cancer, including epithelial ovarian cancer, which is the most common type, and germ cell ovarian cancer, which is less common. Treatment options for ovarian cancer include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. 

Early detection of ovarian cancer is challenging, but regular check-ups, pelvic exams, and monitoring of symptoms can help increase the chances of early detection. Risk-reducing surgery, such as removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes, may also be considered for women at high risk of developing ovarian cancer. 

 

  • Endometrial cancer 

Endometrial cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the lining of the uterus, called the endometrium. It is also known as uterine cancer. The most common symptom of endometrial cancer is abnormal vaginal bleeding, particularly in postmenopausal women. Other symptoms can include pelvic pain, pain during intercourse, and weight loss. 

Endometrial cancer is often caused by a hormone imbalance in which the uterus lining grows too thick. Risk factors include obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, and taking estrogen without progesterone, as well as a family history of endometrial cancer. 

Endometrial cancer treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Surgery is typically the first line of treatment and may involve removing the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy may be recommended for more advanced stages of the disease or for women who are not candidates for surgery. 

Endometrial cancer is highly curable if detected and treated early. Women should be aware of any abnormal vaginal bleeding and report it to their healthcare provider. Regular check-ups and pelvic exams can also help detect endometrial cancer in its early stages. 

 

  • Vaginal cancer 

Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer that starts in the vagina, the canal that connects the uterus to the outside of the body. It is most commonly found in older women and the risk increases with age. 

Symptoms of vaginal cancer may include abnormal vaginal bleeding, discharge, pain during intercourse, and a mass or lump in the vagina. Risk factors include exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen, during pregnancy, a history of cervical, vulvar or endometrial cancer, and a weakened immune system. 

Treatment options for vaginal cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Surgery may involve the removal of the affected tissue, and in advanced stages, the removal of the uterus, ovaries, and lymph nodes.

Radiation therapy and chemotherapy may be recommended for more advanced stages of the disease or for women who are not candidates for surgery. 

Vaginal cancer is highly curable if detected and treated early. Women should be aware of any abnormal vaginal bleeding, discharge, or mass and report it to their healthcare provider. Regular check-ups and pelvic exams can also help detect vaginal cancer in its early stages. 

 

  • Vulvar cancer 

Vulvar cancer is a type of cancer that affects the external female genital organs, called the vulva. It is a rare type of cancer, but the incidence increases with age.

The most common symptom of vulvar cancer is a lump or sore on the vulva that doesn’t heal. Other symptoms can include itching, burning, pain, and bleeding. 

Risk factors for vulvar cancer include HPV infection, smoking, a weakened immune system, and a history of vulvar precancerous conditions such as vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN). 

Treatment options for vulvar cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Surgery may involve the removal of the affected tissue, and in advanced stages, the removal of the lymph nodes.

Radiation therapy and chemotherapy may be recommended for more advanced stages of the disease or for women who are not candidates for surgery. 

Vulvar cancer is highly curable if detected and treated early. Women should be aware of any lumps or sores on the vulva and report them to their healthcare provider. Regular check-ups and pelvic exams can also help detect vulvar cancer in its early stages. 

 

  • Fallopian tube cancer 

Fallopian tube cancer is a rare type of cancer that starts in the fallopian tubes, the tubes that connect the ovaries to the uterus. It is considered a type of ovarian cancer, but it is distinct in its origin and behavior.

Symptoms of fallopian tube cancer are similar to those of ovarian cancer, such as bloating, pelvic or abdominal pain, and difficulty eating. However, these symptoms are often very subtle and may not appear until the cancer is advanced. 

Risk factors for fallopian tube cancer include a family history of ovarian or breast cancer, certain genetic mutations, such as BRCA1 or BRCA2, and a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). 

Treatment options for fallopian tube cancer include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Surgery is typically the first line of treatment and may involve the removal of the fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, and lymph nodes.

Radiation therapy and chemotherapy may be recommended for more advanced stages of the disease or for women who are not candidates for surgery. 

Fallopian tube cancer is difficult to detect early, and it is often diagnosed at advanced stages. However, regular check-ups and pelvic exams, monitoring of symptoms, and risk-reducing surgery may help increase the chances of early detection. 

 

Posted by, magneto
January 21, 2023
Causes of Genetic Changes

How cancer is related to genetic changes?

 

Cancer is a disease which is characterized by the abnormal growth of cells in any body part. Genetics plays a role in the development of cancer by influencing the likelihood that a person will develop certain types of cancer. 

Genetic mutations can be inherited from a person’s parents, or they can occur spontaneously. Some genetic mutations may increase the risk of developing cancer, while others may protect against it. Understanding the genetic factors that contribute to cancer can help in the development of more targeted and effective treatments. 

 

Genetic changes that cause cancer 

There are several types of genetic changes that can lead to cancer. Some of the most common include: 

  1. Oncogenes: These are genes that promote cell growth and division. When these genes are activated (or “turned on”) when they shouldn’t be, they can lead to the development of cancer. 

  2. Tumor suppressor genes: These are genes that help to prevent the growth of cancer cells. When these genes are inactivated (or “turned off”) by mutations, they can no longer perform their normal function, which can lead to the development of cancer. 

  3. Chromosomal changes: Cancer can also be caused by changes in the structure or number of chromosomes, the structures that carry genetic material. These changes can result in the loss or gain of genetic information, which can contribute to the development of cancer. 

  4. DNA repair genes: These are the genes that are responsible for repairing damage to the DNA. When these genes are mutated, DNA damage may not be repaired properly and can lead to the development of cancer. 

It’s important to note that most cancers are not caused by a single genetic change, but by multiple genetic mutations and epigenetic changes over time. 

 

Relationship between cancer and genetics 

The relationship between cancer and genetics is complex, with both genetic and environmental factors playing a role in the development of the disease.

Some cancers are caused by inherited genetic mutations, while others develop as a result of genetic mutations that occur spontaneously during a person’s lifetime. 

Inherited genetic mutations can increase a person’s risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as breast, ovarian, colon, and prostate cancer. For example, mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with a high risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.

Similarly, Lynch syndrome, caused by mutations in genes such as MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2, increases the risk of colon, endometrial and other types of cancer. 

On the other hand, most cancers are not caused by inherited genetic mutations, but by genetic mutations that occur spontaneously during a person’s lifetime. These mutations can be caused by exposure to certain environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke, ultraviolet radiation, and certain chemicals. 

Understanding the genetic changes that lead to cancer can help in the development of more targeted and effective treatments. Genetic testing can also be used to identify people who are at an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer, allowing for earlier detection and prevention. 

 

Types of cancer that occur due to genetic changes 

There are several types of cancer that are known to occur as a result of genetic changes. Some examples include: 

  • Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: These types of cancer are caused by inherited mutations in genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2. People with these mutations have an increased risk of developing ovarian and breast cancer

  • Hereditary colon cancer: Colon cancer can occur due to inherited mutations in genes such as APC, MUTYH, and DNA mismatch repair genes. Lynch syndrome, caused by mutations in genes such as MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2, increases the risk of colon and other types of cancer. 

  • Hereditary melanoma: Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be caused by inherited mutations in genes such as CDKN2A, CDK4, and BAP1. 

  • Hereditary Retinoblastoma: Retinoblastoma is a rare eye cancer that occurs in children, it is caused by inherited mutations in the RB1 gene. 

  • Hereditary Adrenocortical carcinoma: ACC is rare cancer that starts in the outer layer (cortex) of the adrenal gland, it can be caused by inherited mutations in the PRKAR1A gene. 

It’s important to note that not all cases of these cancers are caused by inherited genetic mutations, and most of these cancers also have a significant environmental component. 

 

How can you tell if you are at risk of hereditary cancer? 

There are several ways to determine if you may be at risk for hereditary cancer: 

  • Family history: A personal or family history of cancer, particularly at a young age, can indicate an increased risk of hereditary cancer. If several family members have been diagnosed with the same type of cancer or related cancers, it may be an indication of hereditary cancer syndrome. 

  • Genetic testing: Genetic testing can be used to identify specific genetic mutations that are associated with an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer. For example, genetic testing for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes can be used to identify a person’s risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer. 

  • Genetic counseling: A genetic counselor can help you assess your risk of hereditary cancer by reviewing your family history and discussing the potential benefits and limitations of genetic testing. Genetic counseling can also help you understand and make decisions about genetic testing and management options. 

It’s important to note that not all people with an inherited genetic mutation will develop cancer.

Factors such as lifestyle, environment, and chance also play a role in the development of cancer, and not all cancers are inherited. Genetic testing and counseling can help you to understand your risk and take steps to help reduce it. 

Posted by, magneto
January 14, 2023
Breast Cancer Metastasis

Metastasis of Breast Cancer to Other Organs 

 

Breast cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the cells of the breast, majorly in females. It is one of the most common types of cancer in women, although it can also occur in men.

The most common symptom of breast cancer is a lump or mass in the breast, although other symptoms can include changes in the size or shape of the breast, skin changes (such as dimpling or redness), and changes in the nipple (such as inversion or discharge). 

Risk factors for breast cancer include being a woman, advancing age, family history of the disease, certain genetic mutations (such as BRCA1 and BRCA2), and exposure to certain environmental factors. 

There are several different types of breast cancer, including ductal carcinoma (cancer that starts in the cells that line the ducts of the breast), lobular carcinoma (cancer that starts in the lobules of the breast), and inflammatory breast cancer (a rare and aggressive type of breast cancer that causes the breast to become red, swollen, and warm to the touch). 

Treatment options for breast cancer include surgery (such as lumpectomy or mastectomy), radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and targeted therapy. The choice of treatment will depend on the stage and aggressiveness of cancer, and the overall health of the patient. 

 

Metastasis of breast cancer 

Metastasis of breast cancer is the spread of cancer cells from the original tumor site (in the breast) to other parts of the body. When cancer cells metastasize, they can form secondary tumors in distant organs, such as the bones, lungs, liver, brain, and lymph nodes. This process is also known as stage IV breast cancer or advanced breast cancer. 

The most common sites of breast cancer metastasis are the bones, lungs, and liver. Metastatic breast cancer to the bones can cause bone pain and fractures, while metastasis to the lungs can cause shortness of breath and cough.

Metastasis to the liver can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, weight loss, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes due to a buildup of bilirubin in the blood). 

Treatment for metastatic breast cancer is typically focused on controlling cancer and managing symptoms, rather than curing the disease. The choice of treatment will depend on the location and size of the metastasis, as well as the overall health of the patient. 

It’s important to note that not all breast cancer will metastasize, but early detection and treatment are critical to improving the chances of controlling the disease. 

 

Most Common Metastasis of Breast Cancer

 

1. Metastasis to the liver: 

Breast cancer metastasis to the liver is a stage in which cancer cells from the breast spread to the liver and form secondary tumors. This is a serious complication of breast cancer that can occur at any stage of the disease but is more likely to occur in advanced stages.

Metastasis to the liver can cause a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, weight loss, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes due to a buildup of bilirubin in the blood).

Treatment options for breast cancer metastasis to the liver include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, although the choice of treatment will depend on the stage and aggressiveness of cancer, as well as the overall health of the patient. 

 

2. Metastasis to lung: 

Metastasis of breast cancer to the lungs is a stage in which cancer cells from the breast spread to the lungs and form secondary tumors. This is less common than bone metastasis, but it is still an important complication of advanced or metastatic breast cancer. 

When breast cancer cells reach the lungs, they can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, cough, chest pain, and hoarseness. They can also cause lung infections, such as pneumonia, and can interfere with breathing.

These symptoms may not be specific to lung metastasis, it can also occur with other lung diseases. Therefore, a proper diagnostic evaluation is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. 

Treatment options for breast cancer metastasis to the lungs include surgery to remove the tumors, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy.

Sometimes, a combination of treatments is used. The choice of treatment will depend on the extent of the disease, the location and size of the tumors, the patient’s overall health, and the patient’s preferences. 

It’s important to note that not all metastatic breast cancer will affect the lungs, but in cases where cancer has spread to the lungs, treatment decisions are made based on the goal of controlling cancer and relieving symptoms. 

 

3. Metastasis to bone: 

Metastasis of breast cancer to the bone is a stage in which cancer cells from the breast spread to the bones and form secondary tumors. This is a common complication of advanced or metastatic breast cancer. 

The bones are a frequent site of breast cancer metastasis because they are rich in blood vessels and provide a supportive environment for cancer cells to grow.

When breast cancer cells reach the bones, they can cause bone pain and fractures, as well as weaken the bone structure, making it more susceptible to breaks. Metastasis to the bones also can cause other symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss, and sometimes hypercalcemia (high level of calcium in the blood).

Treatment options for breast cancer metastasis to the bones include radiation therapy to the affected bones, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and targeted therapy. Surgery is typically not an option, as it is difficult to remove tumors that have spread throughout the bones.

Treatment decisions are usually based on the patient’s overall health and the extent of the disease, the location and number of tumors, and the patient’s preferences. 

Regular monitoring of a patient’s bone health is important to help detect and prevent any complications caused by the disease on the bone. 

 

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Posted by, magneto
January 11, 2023
Cancer Story of Sonali Bendre

Cancer Recovery Story of Sonali Bendre

 

Sonali Bendre is an Indian film actress and author who has appeared in many Bollywood films. She began her acting career in the mid-1990s and has appeared in a number of successful films, including “Sarfarosh,” “Hum Saath-Saath Hain,” and “Kal Ho Naa Ho.” Bendre has also hosted several seasons of the Indian version of the popular television game show “Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?”

In addition to her acting career, Bendre is an author and has written several books, including a memoir about her cancer journey. She has also been involved in various charitable and philanthropic efforts, including working with organizations that support cancer patients and their families. Bendre is known for her positive attitude and her ability to inspire others through her writing and public appearances.

 

Cancer Recovery Story

In July 2018, Sonali Bendre announced that she had been diagnosed with high-grade cancer that had spread metastasized. She underwent treatment in New York and Mumbai, including chemotherapy and surgery.

Bendre was open about her cancer journey, sharing updates and photos on social media and writing about her experiences in a series of articles for an Indian magazine. In January 2019, she announced that she was in remission and had returned to India.

Bendre has said that her cancer diagnosis has helped her to prioritize what is important in life and to focus on her health and well-being. She has also used her platform to raise awareness about cancer and to encourage others who are facing similar challenges to stay positive and seek support.

 

Sonali Bendre Cancer

 

Sonali Bendre has spoken openly about her cancer journey and her recovery. After her diagnosis with metastatic cancer in 2018, Bendre underwent treatment in New York and Mumbai, including chemotherapy and surgery.

In January 2019, she announced that she was in remission and had returned to India. Bendre has said that she is grateful to have had access to good medical care and support from her friends and family, which have been key to her recovery.

She has also emphasized the importance of staying positive and finding strength within oneself during difficult times. Bendre has continued to work and be active following her recovery and has used her platform to raise awareness about cancer and to inspire others who are facing similar challenges.

 

Inspiration through her journey

Sonali Bendre is an Indian film actress and author who has appeared in many Bollywood films. She has also hosted several seasons of the Indian version of the popular television game show “Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?”

Despite the challenges, Bendre has remained positive and continues to inspire others through her writing and public appearances. Sonali Bendre has been an inspiration to many people with her positive attitude and her willingness to share her cancer journey publicly.

After being diagnosed with metastatic cancer in 2018, Bendre underwent treatment in New York and Mumbai, including chemotherapy and surgery.

Despite the challenges, Bendre remained positive and continued to work and be active. She also used social media to share updates and photos of her journey and to connect with others who were facing similar challenges.

Bendre has said that her cancer diagnosis has helped her to prioritize what is important in life and to focus on her health and well-being. She has also emphasized the importance of staying positive and finding strength within oneself during difficult times.

Bendre has used her platform to raise awareness about cancer and to encourage others who are facing similar challenges to stay positive and seek support. Her determination and resilience in the face of adversity have inspired many people and helped to bring hope to those facing similar challenges.

 

How can Cancer Rounds help you?

There are millions of people around the world who are suffering from cancer. The struggle to get the right treatment can be overwhelming for many patients.

Cancer can be a difficult and overwhelming experience, and it is natural for cancer patients to feel a range of emotions, including fear, sadness, and uncertainty.

However, it is important to remember that cancer is a treatable disease and that there are many resources available to help cancer patients and their families cope with the challenges of treatment.

Cancer Rounds is here for all cancer patients who are struggling to get the right treatment or consultation from the best doctors. Our organization works to fill this gap and hence offers healthcare services. 

If you or your loved one is suffering from cancer, send us a query and will contact you within 24 hours and help you get the best treatment possible for your condition.

 

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Posted by, magneto
January 5, 2023
Cancer Story of Yuvraj Singh

Inspirational Story of Yuvraj Singh Comeback from Rare Cancer

 

Yuvraj Singh is a retired Indian cricketer who is regarded as one of the best all-rounders in the history of Indian cricket. He made his debut for the Indian national team in 2000 and played a key role in India’s victories in the 2007 ICC World Twenty20 and the 2011 Cricket World Cup. 

He has been a great cricket player and has represented India on an international level. He is known for his aggressive batting style and his ability to bowl fast left-arm off-spin. He has scored over 8,000 runs and taken over 150 wickets in international cricket. In addition to playing for India, Yuvraj has also played for various domestic and international teams in Twenty20 leagues around the world. 

 

Cancer Journey of Yuvraj Singh

Apart from victory in the World Cup, one major accident also occurred in Yuvraj’s life. He was diagnosed with cancer in 2011. He was diagnosed with a rare form of cancer called mediastinal seminoma, which affects the tissues in the chest between the lungs. After being diagnosed, Yuvraj underwent chemotherapy in Boston and Indianapolis.

He made a successful recovery and returned to cricket in 2012. Yuvraj has spoken publicly about his experience with cancer and has credited his positive outlook and strong support system with helping him through his treatment and recovery.

He has also used his platform as a successful cricketer to raise awareness about cancer and support cancer-related causes. In 2012, he launched the Yuvraj Singh Foundation, which works to improve the lives of cancer patients and their families in India.

 

cricketer-yuvraj-singh

 

Since then, he has continued to play for the Indian national team and has also played for various domestic and international teams in Twenty20 leagues around the world. 

Yuvraj Singh’s story of overcoming cancer is certainly an inspiring one. After being diagnosed with mediastinal seminoma in 2011, he underwent chemotherapy and made a successful recovery. He returned to cricket in 2012 and has continued to play at a high level in the years since. 

In addition to his success on the cricket field, Yuvraj has also used his experience with cancer to inspire and help others. He has spoken publicly about his journey with cancer and has credited his positive outlook and strong support system with helping him through his treatment and recovery. He has also used his platform as a successful cricketer to raise awareness about cancer and support cancer-related causes. In 2012, he launched the Yuvraj Singh Foundation, which works to improve the lives of cancer patients and their families in India. 

 

What does his story teach us?

“When you hear the word cancer for the first time, you really get scared. Cancer. It’s like a death sentence. You become really unsure where your life will take you.” – Yuvraj Singh 

Yuvraj’s story is pure inspiration to all those suffering from cancer. As he said, it’s true we hear the word cancer, a negative stream goes into our brain which leads to death and loss, but it does not always comply with death.

Nowadays many major ways are developed to treat cancer. New ways are being developed daily and new research is going around the world to reach a new and more effective treatment for cancer. 

It is natural for the patient and their family to get stressed about such causes. But it is important to take steps as early as possible. In many cases, the patients ignore the symptoms and wait for the symptoms to get worse. In cancer, it becomes more dangerous to wait for the symptoms to get worse. As well said by Yuvraj Singh. 

“It’s only once I accepted cancer that I could beat it. When life knocks down you have a choice — to get up. So, I thought to myself, ‘get up and do it again.” – Yuvraj Singh 

Acceptance that you have cancer, and that it can be cured if you take effective steps at the right time can reduce the risk of it getting fatal. Early diagnosis is an important step in treatment. Early diagnosis can help identify the condition of the patient before cancer can spread into the body and become uncontrollable.  

After getting diagnosed the doctor can plan an efficient treatment for the specific cancer that you are suffering from. There are many types of treatment available nowadays which majorly include radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy immunotherapy, targeted therapies, etc. These treatment methods can be used either in combination or separately depending on the stage and severity of the cancer.  

 

Getting the treatment of cancer

From all this, it is quite clear that cancer can be treated and cured. The recovery story of Yuvraj is one such proof of this fact. Apart from him, there are many millions of people suffering from cancer and winning the battle against it. It is important that as patients and their families, we must have faith and strength to continue this battle. 

We should learn from Yuvraj Singh that “when it comes to cancer, the only choice we have is to get up”. 

We as an organization help many cancer patients across the country to get world-class treatment for cancer. Cancer Rounds works mainly with the objective to provide the best treatment for the best cancer hospitals in India. If you have any questions or want treatment, send us a query and our team will contact you within 24 hours.  

Posted by, magneto
January 4, 2023

What is the test price of thalassemia? 

 

What is thalassemia? 

Thalassemia is a genetic disorder and like other genetic disorders, it hinders the normal functioning of the body. It affects the production of hemoglobin in red blood cells.

This disease is caused by a mutation in genes that produce two different types of hemoglobin chains. Hemoglobin is a protein necessary to carry oxygen in the blood.

As it is present in red blood cells and binds with oxygen to carry it into the bloodstream. During thalassemia, the low amount of red blood cells and low hemoglobin can lead to anemia.

Due to an insufficient amount of hemoglobin, the red blood cells do not function properly hence the red blood cells live for a shorter duration of time, resulting in few healthy blood cells in the bloodstream. This eventually causes thalassemia symptoms. 

These diseases can be diagnosed at an early stage via different methods that include, complete blood count, reticulate count, hemoglobin electrophoresis, genetic testing, etc.

After getting diagnosed with thalassemia, the doctor will advise you to take certain treatments. There are many treatment options for thalassemia which are described below.

This article mainly focuses on thalassemia and its symptoms, treatment, and the cost of tests to diagnose thalassemia.  

 

What are the signs and symptoms of thalassemia? 

Several common thalassemia symptoms are observed in many patients. Although the thalassemia symptoms vary as the condition gets worse. The higher the mutation of genes involved the more symptoms get worse. But several common thalassemia symptoms help a medical professional to identify this condition in a patient, which: 

  1. Weakness 

  2. Bone deformities of the face 

  3. Slow growth and development at early stage 

  4. Swelling in abdominal area 

  5. Pale and yellowish skin appearance 

  6. Urine with dark color 

  7. Fatigue 

There are other thalassemia signs and symptoms as well which are only observed in other patients and can vary a lot depending on the condition of the patient. 

 

What are the treatment options for thalassemia? 

Even though mild symptoms of thalassemia do not require treatment. For severe symptoms treatment is required, there are many methods of treatment of thalassemia including 

  • Blood transfusion –

Blood transfusion is one the majorly used method of thalassemia treatment, which involves the injection of blood to maintain the blood RBC level and hemoglobin level for normal functioning of the body.

Different patients may require receiving blood transfusions at different intervals of time according to the severity of their condition. If the condition is at a severe stage, a blood transfusion may be required every two to four weeks. In general, when the condition is mild, blood transfusions may be required every four months. 

 

  • Iron chelators –

Iron chelators are used as thalassemia treatment in case there is iron overload. These chelators remove the excess iron from the body which can cause damage to various organs of the body.

Usually, regular blood transfusion can cause the RBC levels of the patient to go up and cause excessive iron to build up in the body leading to organ failure. Iron chelation therapy is prescribed to patients who receive blood transfusions frequently. 

 

  • Folic acid supplement –

Several medications are prescribed to patients to help their bodies produce healthy blood cells. Folic acid supplements are such medicines that are prescribed to thalassemia patients to increase the level of RBC in the body naturally. It is also one of the most commonly used thalassemia treatments. 

 

  • Bone marrow transplant –

Stem cell transplant or bone marrow transplant is commonly used as thalassemia treatment to completely replace the diseased bone marrow that is unable to produce healthy red blood cells. To do so, a healthy donor is a match with the patients.

A matched donor is someone who has the same type of protein present on the surface of the blood cells as the person receiving a bone marrow transplant.

Bone marrow cells from the healthy donor will be transferred to the patient. These healthy blood cells from donors will start reproducing and producing healthy blood cells in the patients. 

Other than these methods several different methods can be used as thalassemia treatment, which can be available in some countries only. 

 

What is the test price of thalassemia? 

Thalassemia test cost ranges from Rs. 500 to RS. 1,500 in India. It may vary a little depending upon the city it has been done in.

Although it is not expensive as compared to other blood disorder tests, it is quite unknown to the ordinary public. The thalassemia test price in different cities of India is mentioned below in the table: 

 

City Maximum cost  Minimum cost  
Delhi Rs. 500 Rs. 1400 
Mumbai Rs. 850 Rs. 3000 
Chennai Rs. 700 Rs. 2500 
Bangalore Rs. 700 Rs. 1500 
Hyderabad Rs. 850 Rs. 2000 
Noida Rs. 650 Rs. 1200 
Jaipur Rs. 800 Rs. 1800 

 

What can cancer rounds help you get the best treatment? 

Cancer Rounds is one such organization that helps thousands of cancer patients annually to get the best treatment possible. We assist you to get in touch with the best oncologist and get the best treatment possible depending on the type, stage, and severity of the cancer.

We are associated with top doctors and the finest hospitals that provide the best cancer treatment in India. To consult an oncologist, send us your query and our team will contact you within 24 hours.   

Posted by, magneto
December 2, 2022

Everything you need to know about GIST 

 

What is a gastrointestinal stromal tumor? 

Gastrointestinal Stromal tumor (GIST) is a wide range of tumor occurring region which begins from mouth to anus. It includes the complete digestive system.

GIST most commonly affects the stomach and intestine of the patient. It usually begins from the inner lining of these organs and starts growing rapidly, intruding into the surrounding organs.

The inner lining of the digestive system consists of a nerve cell that aids in digestion. GIST is thought to originate from these nerve cells.  

The main reason behind GIST is still unknown. Several things can increase the chances of getting GIST but the main cause behind it is still not known to humankind.

Some of the risk factors that could lead to GIST are older age or the answer lies in the genetic material of a patient. Many patients suffer from GIST due to the genetic inheritance of such mutations in genes. 

There are several symptoms of GIST that help a doctor to identify your condition and do screening for cancer. After diagnosis and staging of cancer, an oncologist will prepare a plan of treatment for a specific patient according to their overall health and stage of cancer.  

There are many ways to treat GIST, some of the commonly used techniques are surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. These techniques of treatment can be done individually or in combination with other methods to completely eradicate cancerous cells from the body of the patient. 

Nowadays many other advanced treatment methods are available, consult with your doctor before treatment. Discuss the methods that can help you get the best treatment possible according to your condition.  

Continue reading the article to know more about GIST, its common symptoms, and treatment methods. 

 

What are the common symptoms of GIST? 

There are several ways and common symptoms by which it is easy to detect the condition of the patients. These are some of the common symptoms of GIST as these symptoms are commonly observed in patients: 

  • Pain in the abdominal area 
  • Lump formation  
  • Fatigue 
  • Nausea 
  • Vomiting 
  • Cramps in abdominal muscles 
  • Feeling of fullness 
  • Blood in stool or dark-colored stool 

Apart from these symptoms, many symptoms are not listed above but can be experienced by the patients. Consult your doctor and let them know all the symptoms that you suffer from.  

Always be careful as GIST can occur at any age. It is advised to visit a doctor immediately if you experience more than three symptoms from the given list.  

 

What are the ways to diagnose GIST? 

Generally, imaging tests and biopsies are the most commonly used methods to diagnose any type of cancer. Some of the used diagnostic methods to confirm the case of GIST and know the stage of a cancer patient is suffering come form can be done by: 

Imaging tests –

There are several imaging tests such as x-ray, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) scan, positron emission tomography (PET) scan, and ultrasound, etc. which are generally used to diagnose cancer in a patient.

Imaging tests provide an image of the tumor, the location of the tumor, and the area it has affected. It helps the doctor to analyze which part of the organ is affected. But not every patient might need imaging tests which will be decided by the doctor. 

 

Biopsy –

Another crucial way to examine the tumor is a biopsy. In this method, a sample of tissues is taken from the body of the patient to examine under laboratory conditions.

This helps to determine the presence of cancerous cells and the stage of cancer. Usually, a small, thin, hollow needle is inserted into the body with the help of an endoscope to collect tissue samples. Apart from that in some cases, surgery is done to collect samples of tissue depending upon the severity of the case. A biopsy is one of the most reliable diagnostic tests for cancer.  

 

Endoscopy –

An endoscope is a long, thin tube with a light and a camera attached at the tip of the tube. It is used to look inside the body of a patient. Endoscopes are used with other devices to take samples of the tumor or look for the position of the tumor. It is often used with an ultrasound probe to check for the size of the tumor and create pictures of the tumor. 

 

What are the possible treatment options for GIST? 

There are different ways to treat GIST which include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, etc. The type of treatment a patient must get is decided by the doctor. These methods of treatment can be used in combination or as the primary treatment option. The treatment for GIST includes: 

  • Surgery – Completely removing the tumor inside the gastrointestinal tract by surgical interventions. Surgery is used when the tumor has not spread to other regions of the GI tract and can be removed easily. It can only be used to treat small tumors by removing them from the body of the patients.  

 

  • Chemotherapy – One of the most common ways to treat cancer is chemotherapy, which uses drugs to kill the cancerous cells in the body. Chemotherapy is a type of treatment that uses heavy medications to kill the rapidly growing cells, cancerous cells in the body. It does have several side effects, but these side effects disappear when the medicines are discontinued. 

 

  • Radiation therapy – Radiotherapy is used to treat cancer. This method uses a high energy beam to kill cancerous cells. This high-energy beam destroys the DNA of the cancerous cells when targeted towards the tumor and hence kills the cancerous cells. Radiation therapy is quite often used to treat cancer in many patients which gives significant results. 

 

How can cancer rounds help you get the best treatment? 

Cancer Rounds offers many services for cancer patients to provide them with the best cancer treatment from the top oncologists in India.

You can send us any query regarding your condition and requirement for treatment. Our team will connect with you within 24 hours and offer the best services to get you consultation from the finest doctors. 

Posted by, magneto
November 29, 2022

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