Cervical Cancer Archives - Cancer Rounds

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Top Treatments For Cervical Cancer In India

What is Cervical Cancer?

Cervix is the part of the female reproductive system that connects the vaginal canal to her uterus. Cancer that develops in the cells of the woman’s cervix is known as cervical cancer. Cancer cervix can metastasize (spread to other parts) such as the lungs, uterus, vagina and rectum.

Infection with the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the most common cause of cervical cancer.

Good To Know: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection. Infection from this virus can be prevented by vaccinating women against this virus. If it is given before the female gets exposed to the virus, it can protect the cancers of the vagina and vulva. It can also prevent genital warts and anal cancers. 

Interestingly, educating boys and vaccinating them against the strains of HPV can help reduce the transmission.

Treatment Options For Cervical Cancer In India

Surgery

Surgery is one of the commonly used procedures for treating cervical cancer (ofcourse, with respect to the stage of cancer). A gynecologic oncologist is a doctor who specialises in using surgery to treat cancer that occurs in the female reproductive system.

What To Expect? 

During surgery, the tumor and some of the surrounding healthy tissue are removed. The following techniques are frequently performed for cervical cancer that has not progressed beyond the cervix:

  1. Conization (procedure same as cone biopsy) is a procedure for removing micro-invasive malignancy from the cervix that can only be seen under a microscope.
  2. LEEP. A thin wire hook is used to pass an electrical current through. The tissue is removed by the hook. It can be used to remove micro-invasive cervical cancer.
  3. Hysterectomy. The uterus and cervix are removed. It can be a  basic or radical hysterectomy.  The uterus and cervix are removed in a basic hysterectomy. The uterus, cervix, upper vagina, and tissue around the cervix are all removed during a radical hysterectomy.
  4. Salpingo-oophorectomy. This procedure involves the removal of both fallopian tubes and both ovaries, if necessary. It is performed concurrently with a hysterectomy.
  5. Trachelectomy. A surgical treatment that removes the cervix but leaves the uterus intact. Dissection of the lymph nodes in the pelvis is part of the procedure.
  6. Exenteration. If cervical cancer has spread to these organs after radiation therapy, the uterus, vagina, lower intestine, rectum, or bladder may be removed. This is a treatment that is rarely suggested.

Radiation Therapy:

Radiation Therapy is another popularly used treatment option. It is done as one, external radiation therapy and two, brachytherapy which means the insertion of radioactive sources near the tumor for time intervals. If the female desires to conceive, freezing the eggs is a popular option practised.

Chemotherapy:

Low doses of chemicals that can kill the cancer cells are injected. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy work as adjuvants. A combination treatment is practised for advanced stages of cancer.

Immunotherapy:

Immunotherapy is the cancer treatment that works by stimulating the body’s natural defence mechanisms. It is also known as biological therapy. It helps in restoring the body’s immune system and improve functions by using the body’s own immune system simultaneously with those prepared in the laboratory.

Just like other types of cancers, cervical cancer is a treatable one. Cancer Rounds provides confidential care from the day of consultation throughout the treatment. Our constant efforts are focused to create awareness and helping as many females suffering from cervical cancer as possible. Break the barriers and talk it out with our doctors. To know more about the treatment of cervical cancer. You can connect us on our customer care number or visit www.cancerrounds.com

Posted by, magneto
February 16, 2022

First Month Of Year Reminds – What Can Be Done to Reduce Risk of Cervical Cancer?

 

 

 

Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer affects the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus connecting to the vagina. A virus- namely Human Papillomavirus HPV, is a virus transmitted from one individual to another during sexual intercourse. HPV is the common cause of this cancer. Yes, recently Cervical Cancer treatment is generally planned with strategy as treatable and curable. Yes Cervical cancer treatment is curable- if it is diagnosed when the cancer is in an early stage.
Our oncologist from Cancer hospital in Gurgaon recommends certain tips, that can help a female prevent cervical cancer: –

1. Quit Smoking and start anti-tobacco cessation therapy- As individuals who smoke are in a high-risk zone to get cervical cancer twice times. Quitting tobacco is the best way to avoid cervical cancer. This is because tobacco poses the intake of toxins either by smoking in the body that affect the DNA of the cervix. These harmful toxins contribute to the growth of cervical cancer and quitting tobacco usage will reduce the risk of cervical cancer.

2. Improving the Immunity of the body will help the host to fight against deadly diseases. Take steps to improve immunity by shifting to a healthy diet and quitting a lazy routine- one should exercise regularly. Yes, Leading a healthy lifestyle and doing meditation to manage stress properly assures one to go a long way in improving immunity against diseases like cancer.

3. HPV Vaccine- is among few vaccines that can protect young females against certain HPV-associated cervical cancer. This vaccine is available even for children as young as nine years old and is recommended to prevent the risk of cervical cancer. Even if you are vaccinated, you still need screening because no vaccine provides complete protection.

4. Screening for cervical cancer- is a key for early detection that can help in timely cervical cancer treatment and high treatment success rates or even remission. The leading cancer hospital in Gurgaon conducts such screening camps from time to time.

Multifactorial process is responsible for development of cervical cancer that includes:
1. Multiple sexual partners
2. Smoking
3. Poor immunity
4. Early sexual activities
5. Other sexually transmitted diseases.

Hope this article will initiate a rhythm of awareness to take all the required preventive measures for cervical cancer. The symptoms one must look for before consulting the doctor are heavy menstrual bleeding, un-explained or varied color vaginal discharge, bleeding after intercourse, and sexual intercourse accompanied with pain.
Once you suspect and consult the doctor following the experience of the above-mentioned symptoms- diagnostic work is done that includes: –

1. PAP Smear Test: in this test, the gynecologist takes cervical cell samples by the process of exfoliative cytology and the sample is sent to a laboratory for testing. The pathologist will examine the sample after stained with PAP stain under microscopy to detect cancerous cells. It is generally recommended that females above 25 years shall get a PAP screening test done in 3years until the 6th decade

2. HPV Test is referred to as a standalone test or a PAP test to predict the risk of developing cervical cancer. After every 3rd decade, the guidelines have recommended PAP and HPV tests once every six years.
We must mention here that in case the PAP smear or HPV test results turn out abnormal, you need to follow up with an oncologist.

Cervical cancer treatment: the best oncologists at the Cancer hospital in Gurgaon will provide the diagnosed patient with several treatment options. The assured treatment is dependent on the stage of cervical cancer, tumor size, age of the patient, health condition, economic status.

To conclude we must focus on fact that the prevention is better than cure – and above said few tips at home will prevent cervical cancer. Also, we want you to take the pledge in the month of January to spread the word of Cervical cancer awareness by opting for regular cancer screening. If at all you happen to be diagnosed with this cancer, you can get timely treatment and might get cured.

Posted by, Medical Team, Cancer Rounds
January 17, 2022
Treatment of cervical cancer

Treatment of Cervical Cancer

Where is the cervix located?

Cervix is a part of the female reproductive system which is the lowermost part of the womb (or uterus). This opens into the vagina.

What is cervical cancer?

When cells of the cervix either fail to reach the stage of death or reproduce uncontrollably, it forms a tumour. This tumour spreads and obstructs normal function causing problems which may be life-threatening if not recognised early.

Who is at risk?

Cervical cancer is one of the commonly occurring cancers in women. It affects almost 13,000 women in the U.S every year. But, on the bright side, early detection has an excellent prognosis. Cervical cancer is more common in the following cases:

  1. HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS: this virus has many subtypes. Not all of them cause cervical cancer. Some simply cause genital warts and lesions. But types 16 and 18 causes around 75% of the cervical cancers. HPV is spread through sexual contact with affected persons. This is why it is important to have trusted and safe sexual relations. Having multiple sexual partners, becoming sexually active at a young age, low immune system and contracting other sexually transmitted diseases put you at an increased risk for HPV.
  2. SMOKING: active and passive smoking of tobacco puts women at an increased risk of developing cervical cancer. It also increases the rate of spread of the cancer. Studies show that women who are heavy smokers are at three times more risk of developing cervical cancer.
  3. ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES: Women who have a habit of consuming contraceptives for a long period of time (say 5-7 years) are at an increased risk of developing cervical cancer.
  4. MULTIPLE PREGNANCIES: studies show that women who have had three or more full term pregnancies are at an increased risk of developing cervical cancer.
  5. EARLY PREGNANCY: although women tend to reach puberty much before the age of 18, having a full-term pregnancy before the age of 17 puts them at an increased risk compared to those who conceive at 25.
  6. SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS: women with better socio-economic status have better hygiene facilities, fewer pregnancies compared to women from poorer backgrounds. This increases the risk of developing cancer.

When to see a doctor?

Although signs and symptoms can vary widely from person to person, some important signs can help an early detection:

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • Painful menstrual bleeding
  • Vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse
  • Bleeding or spotting between menses (periods)
  • Bleeding after menopause
  • Longer, heavier menstrual cycles
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • Pain in the lower belly or pelvis
  • Watery or bloody vaginal discharge which might have a foul odour
  • Advanced stage symptoms include weight loss, fatigue, back pain, leg pain, swollen legs, fractures, and rarely urine or faeces discharge from vagina.

TYPES OF CERVICAL CANCER:

There are two main divisions:

  1. Squamous cell carcinomas: these begin at the flat, thin cells at the bottom of the cervix. This accounts for almost 80 to 90 percent of cervical cancers.
  2. Adenocarcinomas: these develop in the glandular cells that line up in the upper portion of the cervix. They account for 10 to 20% of cervical cancers.

Other rare types include:

  • Adenosquamous carcinoma
  • Small cell carcinoma
  • Neuroendocrine tumour
  • Glassy cell carcinoma
  • Villoglandular adenocarcinoma

STAGING:

Staging is an important step to diagnose and plan the best treatment for the patient. A generalised form of the staging is as follows:

  • STAGE 0: precancerous cells are present
  • STAGE 1: cancerous cells have grown and spread to deeper layers of cervix and probably to the uterus and nearby lymph nodes
  • STAGE 2: the cancer is now spread beyond uterus and cervix but not to the walls of the pelvis or lower part of the vagina. It may or may not have affected he lymph nodes.
  • STAGE 3: the cancer cells are present in the lower part of vagina or walls of the pelvis. It may be blocking the uterus and the urinary tubes. It may or may not have affected the associated lymph nodes.
  • STAGE 4: the cancer has spread to the bladder or rectum and is growing out of the uterus. It may or may not affect the lymph nodes. In advanced stages, it spreads to distant organs like liver and lungs.

How do we detect it?

  1. PAP smear test: a simple, cost effective test that requires minimum equipment, minimum discomfort, and quick. A swab is wiped onto the mucosal layer of the cervix, collecting the secretions and cells and are deposited onto a slide which is then examined under a microscope for cancerous or precancerous cells. This test has a 50% false negative and should not be the confirmatory test.
  2. Colposcopy: a lighted microscope is used to visualise the external surface of the cervix. If any abnormal-looking tissues are found, a small scraping of cells are taken for biopsy. This is sent to the laboratory for testing. It does not require anaesthesia and the discomfort level is similar to that in PAP smear.
  3. Conization: a cone shaped portion near the cervical canal is removed. This is done with the help of an electrically-heated thin loop of wire known as LEEP(Loop Electrical Excision Procedure). The cone-shaped segment can also be removed using cold knife conization technique. This tissue is then sent for biopsy. The procedure is performed under local anaesthesia in the doctor’s office.
  4. X-Rays, CT, MRI: these tests are performed once the presence of cancer is confirmed, to know the extent of cancer spread in the pelvis.

What are the treatments available in India?

With the advent of recent technology, the prognosis of cervical cancer has improved sevenfold. The early detection of cervical cancer through regular cervical screening plays an extremely important role in its successful treatment. It is advised that women over the age of 30 undergo regular pelvic examination once in 3 years. This is not required in those who have undergone hysterectomy already.

The treatment modalities available in India are:

  1. SURGERY:
  2. Hysterectomy: it refers to a procedure which includes removal of the uterus with a small portion of the vagina. Simple hysterectomy is the removal of the uterus and cervix with the cancerous tumour. It is done in early stages of cervical cancer. Radical hysterectomy is the removal of the cervix, uterus, a part of the vagina, and associated lymph nodes along with the cancer. Both these procedures render the woman infertile.
  3. Trachelectomy: this procedure involves removal of the upper vagina and cervix. It is done in initial stages and preserves the fertility of the womb.
  4. Pelvic exenteration: It involves removal of cervix, uterus, surrounding lymph nodes, and parts of other organs depending on its location.
  5. RADIATION THERAPY: radiations are another treatment option. Both external radiation therapy and brachytherapy (insertion of radioactive sources near the tumour for fixed duration of time). If patient wants to conceive, preservation of eggs must be considered as an option.
  6.  CHEMOTHERAPY: low doses of chemical medications that have the capacity to kill cancer cells are injected into the vein. This treatment is given as an adjunct to radiation therapy. It is usually reserved for advanced stages of cervical cancer.
  7. PALLIATIVE CARE: Special medical care that focuses on offering pain relief and relief from other symptoms of the illness. Special palliative care doctors are appointed for the patient and the family.

PREVENTION:

Although there is nothing definitive that can be done to prevent cancer altogether, some precautionary measures can be taken to reduce the risk of cervical cancer:

  • Vaccination against HPV
  • Protected sexual practices using condoms and other barriers.
  • Avoid smoking and chronic alcoholism
  • Routine PAP smear test
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Posted by, Medical Team, Cancer Rounds
April 11, 2019

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