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Can Tumor Biopsy Cause The Spread Of Cancer?

Can Tumor Biopsy Cause The Spread Of Cancer?

What is a Tumor Biopsy?

Your doctor will decide in certain cases that he or she wants a sample of your tissue or cells to help diagnose a disease or to recognize cancer. The procedure done to remove tissue or cells for examination is Biopsy. Can Tumor Biopsy Cause The Spread Of Cancer?

Cancer Consultant in India helps you with thorough and updated information about the procedures such as tumour biopsy and its effects. Although a biopsy can sound terrifying, it is important to note that most procedures that are performed are absolutely pain-free and low-risk. A piece of skin, tissue, organ, or potential tumour will be surgically removed and sent to the lab for examination, based on the condition.

Typically, biopsies are related to tumours, but that doesn’t mean you have tumours simply because a biopsy is prescribed by the doctor. Doctors scan for cancers or other disorders that cause abnormalities in the body using biopsies. Rule out the myth about cancer, biopsies are a diagnostic tool and do not cause the spread of tumours, although a few after-effects may be inevitable.

For instance, an ultrasound examination will prove the lump if a woman has a lump in her breast, but a biopsy is the best way to ascertain if it is breast cancer or another noncancerous disease, such as polycystic fibrosis.

Common Types of Biopsies: 

There are several different kinds of biopsies. Your doctor will choose the type to use based on your condition and the area of your body that needs closer review. Can Tumor Biopsy Cause The Spread Of Cancer?

Whatever the type, you’ll be given local anaesthesia to numb the area where the incision is made.

There are many types of biopsies that are different from others and used for the diagnosis of different types of cancer. Based on your diagnosis and the part of your body that needs closer examination, your doctor will select the type.

Whatever the type, local anaesthesia would be given to you to numb the region where the incision is made. Few procedures are as follows:

  • Bone Marrow Biopsy 
  • Endoscopic Biopsy
  • Needle Biopsy
  • Skin Biopsy
  • Surgical Biopsy

 

Medical issues to consider

You need to address a number of problems with your doctor or surgeon before the operation, including:

Health history, like any medications you might be taking, over-the-counter medications, drugs, vitamins, or mineral supplements. Any preparations can interfere and need to be avoided with surgical drugs.

Other checks can need to be performed prior to the biopsy (depending on the type of the disease under investigation), such as blood tests or ultrasound scans. Can Tumor Biopsy Cause The Spread Of Cancer?

Myths about Cancer: Can a Tumor Biopsy Cause The Spread Of Cancer?

In a biopsy, a surgical procedure that extracts tissue samples from tumours, cancer is almost invariably detected. To assess the existence and form of cancer, the samples are viewed under a microscope by a pathologist. A typical patient issue is that biopsies may allow cancers to metastasize to other areas of the body from microscopic cells. For the patient, biopsies are extremely useful, since getting a definitive diagnosis of cancer is crucial in assessing and preparing the patient’s correct care. It doesn’t cause the tumour spread.

The risks of a biopsy

The risk of injury or bleeding lies with any surgical operation that involves cutting the skin. However, the risk is much lower as the incision is minimal, especially in needle biopsies.

Complications from a biopsy

Depending on the biopsy procedure, possible complications include:

  • Excessive bleeding (haemorrhage)
  • Infection
  • Puncture damage to nearby tissue or organs
  • Skin numbness around the biopsy site.

Following up after a biopsy

Your doctors will continue to examine it after the tissue sample is collected. For certain cases, it is possible to perform this research at the time of the operation. More commonly, though, for processing, the sample would need to be sent to a laboratory. The findings will take anything from a couple of days to a couple of weeks.

Your doctor can contact you to share the results after the findings arrive, or remind you to come in for a follow-up appointment to discuss the next steps.

Your doctor should be able to inform you of the type of cancer and the extent of its spread from the biopsy if the findings indicate symptoms of cancer. The lab report should be able to guide your doctor in diagnosing and treating your condition if the biopsy has been performed for a cause other than cancer.

 

If the findings are negative, but the doctor’s concern is still high, you can require another biopsy or a certain type of biopsy, either for cancer or other conditions. As for the right path to take, the doctor will be able to direct you. Do not hesitate to consult with the doctor if you have any concerns about the biopsy prior to the operation or about the outcome. You will want to write your questions down and carry them to your next office appointment with you.

 

Contact Cancer Rounds for more information on Cancer therapy in India or to learn more about the Cancer Treatment Cost.

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Posted by, magneto
October 28, 2020
Cancer and mental health

Cancer and Mental Health

With cancer, your emotional and physical well-being will be compromised. It is good to ensure you get adequate sleep and exercise in all stages of the disease and have a diverse diet. You should also be mindful of your social well-being. Cancer and well-being go hand in hand. Cancer influences your own image and knowledge of yourself. Changes can be fearsome for physical appearance and the ill-health. Yet it is very important to continue to handle yourself as best as possible in terms of your own best-being and healing. Cancer and Mental Health has been discussed in this blog

 

Cancer and Mental Health 

Having cancer produces many distinct emotions with it. Not only does the illness affect your health, but also your emotional well-being. It may be difficult to consider the patient’s position. The significant disease leads us to have a wider view of life. The emotions of the crisis triggered by the disease are part and parcel of the process. Everybody deals in their own way about their emotions.

 

The way to cope with cancer is subjective. There can be ample episodes of mood swings. Negation, rage, fear, frustration, sorrow, disappointment, shame, and isolation are the most common.

Facing your thoughts and resolving them is the most important thing. You should not suppress, but you should confront and learn to cope courageously with your emotions. Only then will the mental recovery begin correctly.

Everybody deals in their own way about their emotions. Others unload them by events, others manage to communicate about them or to learn about them alone.

 

Ask for help

Cancer may induce multiple intense psychological responses, such as anxiety and depression. It is necessary to obtain clinical assistance if those conditions feel insurmountable and you are unable to handle it. 

It is enough for you to speak to your doctor frequently and especially family or friends about stuff. You can also get help from the Cancer Rounds, where professional oncologist assists people with cancer and their loved ones. 

It is important to speak to your doctor or the nursing staff who will care for you about your well-being.

 

Ways to improve your state of mind:

  • Fresh outdoor weather helps enhance body and mind activity and exercise.
  • Look after your looks. 
  • Celebrate the accomplishments and milestones – be honoured.
  • A healthy attitude comes from doing nice things.
  • Write down the list of good things to read in sad days.
  • Don’t hanker for the past, consider the happy days instead.
  • It depends on you to act in your life. You have to think about items in a positive or negative way and remember them.

Cancer and a healthy diet

Cancer has a number of effects on a person’s diet and dietary habits. The disorder itself can lead to weight loss, lack of appetite, or other eating disorders.

Surgical therapy may impact swallowing or digestive tract function. The treatment of radiation and chemotherapy can lead to nausea, diarrhoea, loss of appetite, and alteration of taste and smell.

Mood disturbances or stress related to your disease will often affect your appetite, which also leads to weight loss. Any patients with cancer may also face starvation that may hinder recuperation and strength.

The case could be the reverse with certain cancer patients being treated. Medication with hormones or cortisone can induce appetite and increase weight. Treatment doesn’t lead to weight loss, but, by making daily meals chart, consuming nutritious food, and doing more based on your ability, you can look after your weight.

The cancer patients require a diverse diet and a decent quantity of fluid. And if your appetite is often bad, your daily meal requires ample calories and nutrients. High iron levels such as the spinach and chicken cereal, green vegetables, pulses, and foods help us retain capacity. The same happens to food also with small foods. You should snack processed food supplements, which in limited quantities provide lots of nutrients. It’s good to talk to a psychiatrist, nurse, or dietitian about diet.

Cancer and exercise

As we rightly mentioned in the start, Cancer and well-being have a direct relation. Exercise is vital to the well-being and recovery when you have cancer. The stronger and the easier you continue to workout following treatment, recovery begins.

Physical exercise and light training improve the strength of your muscles and give you stamina. You don’t need to workout excessively, since your condition and recovery physically may put pressure on you.

After rehabilitation, it is appropriate to start walking, for example by taking clear walks. To do stuff like housework, shopping and working are appreciated and encouraged.

You note the positive benefits of exercising are attained easily. Your mood is starting to change as exercise raises endorphin levels, particularly in the brain, and circulated in the body. Endorphins ease discomfort and strengthen well-being emotions.

Conclusion 

Cancer and Mental Health is directly proportional. The physical and mental well-being of a Cancer patient is very important. It not only helps in a speedy recovery but also makes life worth living. For more information and assistance on psychological, physical, or dietary help, visit Cancer Rounds or call our Customer Care service. 

 

 

Posted by, magneto
October 20, 2020

Symptoms To Look Out For in Cancer Checkup

Symptoms To Look Out For in Cancer Checkup

 Cancer is the greatest test of the human spirit. It is undeniably one of the major causes of premature deaths. When cells in the body behave abnormally and start growing and dividing themselves, destroying body tissues and invading other parts, is CANCER.

 

Some of the Most Common Cancers:

  • Breast cancer
  • Lung cancer
  • Thyroid cancer
  • Bladder cancer
  • Prostate cancer
  • Colon and rectal cancer
  • Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
  • Melanoma
  • Kidney cancer
  • Endometrial cancer
  • Leukemia
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Liver cancer

About 9.6 million people die every year around the world and more than a million new cases are reported in India every year. Half of the million people die because of the ignorance and lack of understanding of Cancer. According to a recent study titled ‘The burden of cancers and their variations across the states of India’, the death rate is higher in females due to cancer. The International Cancer Control is launching a 3-year campaign called ‘I Am and I Will’ in 2019, which asks for personal commitment in order to help reduce the burden of cancer globally.

Cancer is a war that can be won if you know what to look for. One must always have a good understanding of their body. Regular screening helps detects the abnormalities and can help detect several diseases at an early stage. Do not ignore the warning signs of Cancer. If you have the following potential symptoms of Cancer, then consult your doctor and get it checked immediately:

  1. Losing Weight:

When your healthy body is attacked by cancer cells, you may start losing weight. Many people lose around 5 kg weight even before they are diagnosed with cancer. So weight loss can be considered as a starting point. So if you do not have any conditions such as hyperthyroidism explaining your weight loss and you are losing weight suddenly then it can be a sign of Esophagus, stomach, lung or pancreatic cancer.

  1. Unusual Blood loss:

Blood in stools may indicate colon or rectal cancer and blood in urine may indicate prostate or bladder cancer. If you are experiencing unusual bleeding or discharge, then visit a doctor for a checkup. In the case of stomach cancer, there is internal bleeding which is rarely detected on time.

 

  1. Fever:

Fever is the most common and most confusing symptom of Cancer as one can get a fever due to weather change too. When your body meets with an infection or an illness, it reacts in the form of fever. Whenever you get a fever, your body is indicating that something is wrong with your body. If you are getting a fever often, then it might be indicating that cancer has already spread to other parts and is at an advanced stage. Fever is often seen as a symptom of advanced cancer but one can also get fever at the early stages of Leukemia or Lymphoma.

 

  1. Thickening or Lump:

In most cases of Breast cancer, women often are unable to detect the lump on time. Not all breast lumps are cancer. But it is suggested that women should examine their breasts at a regular time interval so that they can feel the changes and get it checked for breast cancer. Thickening of breasts is often a sign of Breast cancer. If your nipples are discharging and are turned inward along with redness or scaling on breast skin then it can be a symptom of breast cancer. It is better to get it checked.

 

  1. Fatigue and Pain:

Fatigue, tiredness and unexplained pain can be the warning signs of cancer. If you are experiencing continuous fatigue and you are tired for no reason then cancer is a possibility. Tiredness can be related to Leukemia and Fatigue can be a result of blood loss from other different cancers. Pain is normally caused when the cancer is spread and you can also experience back pains in the case of colon, rectum, ovarian and prostate cancers.

 

  1. Changes in Skin:

When you notice your moles or warts changing or getting bigger, then do not take it lightly, it can be a symptom of Skin Cancer. White spots, lumps or bumps, all can be related to cancers like oral cancer, skin cancer or breast cancer.

If you are experiencing an increase in hair growth, redness, sores, hyper-pigmentation, yellow eyes, and skin, then cancer might be the reason, get it checked.

 

  1. Constant Cough:

You can get cough due to colds, flu, low humidity, and allergies but if you are experiencing Cough for a long time and you are getting hoarse, it can be a sign of Lung Cancer or thyroid cancer. If the disease is advanced then you may experience coughing up blood too.

 

  1. Night sweats:

Night sweats indicate the early stages of many cancers like Leukemia and Liver Cancer. If you often find yourself drenched in night sweats, then it may be a symptom of cancer. Night sweats can be caused due to many other reasons, but if you see other warning signs along with night sweats then it is time to get a checkup.

 

  1. Changes in Bowel:

Many people start having problems with swallowing, eating, lessening of appetite or feeling pain after eating in Cancer. If you are often getting indigestion, feel nauseous, bloating and vomiting, this symptom can be a sign of Cancer. These symptoms indicate Esophageal, ovarian, and brain cancers.

There are times when you can get Cancer without any prior signs. Cancers like Pancreatic cancer and Kidney cancer are those which are diagnosed only after reaching an advanced stage. If you have a family history of cancer, it is better to get it checked often. If you are well aware of the changes in your body, you can detect the signs and can stop Cancer from spreading further. Contact Cancer Rounds team for consultations and treatment.

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Posted by, magneto
July 26, 2019

Know More About Chemotherapy

What is chemotherapy?

When we hear the word chemotherapy, it is instantly associated with hair loss, cancer and misery. To make the most of chemo, a thorough understanding of what it is and how it works is necessary.

Normal cells follow the life cycle of birth, maturation, function and death. In cancer cells, to put it in simple terms, they do not follow any specific cycle. They do not perform proper function but more importantly, they do not die.

Natural cell death is called apoptosis. It is very important as it maintains the number of cells that are limited at a certain region and allows new cells to be born in its place.

But, in case of cancer cells, apoptosis is absent, which leads to invasion of cells into local structures and also, far off structure. This obstructs the normal functioning of cells.

Chemotherapy is a chemical treatment which involves destruction of cancer calls. But, along with cancer cells, normal healthy cells get destroyed as well. This is what causes the side effects.

How does chemotherapy work?

Chemotherapeutic drugs work on multiple principles:

  • Impair mitosis: mitosis is a type of cell division that occurs in normal cells. A single cell splits into two with two separate pairs of DNA’s and genetic material. Chemo drugs can affect dividing cells at the stage of splitting or DNA synthesis. The impaired cells are destroyed and formation of cancer cell is stopped. But along with these normal, rapidly dividing cells, like the blood cells are also affected.
  • Nutrition deprivation: chemo drugs can deprive the cancer cells of their nutritional source, which are through blood vessels, enzymes and hormones.
  • Trigger apoptosis: apoptosis is the programmed cell death that is required for removing old cells and making space for healthy new cells. This can be triggered by some chemicals which are released by the chemo drugs.

Tests performed before chemotherapy:

Before chemotherapy, the physician evaluates if the patient is fit enough to handle the side effects of the therapy.

  • Liver function tests: liver undergoes a lot of stress whenever a new chemical is added to the body as it metabolises the drug. If the liver is already in a weak condition, chemotherapy is not advised.
  • Complete blood picture: if the total number of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets are already low, chemotherapy will only make it lower.

Blood tests are continued during the treatment as well to know any adverse conditions.

How are chemotherapeutic drugs administered?

Routes of administration of chemotherapeutic drugs vary greatly on the patient’s cooperation, type of cancer, location of cancer, physical health status, age, capacity to withstand the selected route.

Some of the most common routes of administration are:

  1. Oral route: if the patient is fit enough, the drug can be taken as a tablet, pills, capsules or liquid form. This can be administered from home, but the patient will require regular check-ups to ensure its proper functioning. Some capsules with protective coating helps in slow release of the drug. This allows to maintain a longer duration between the doses.

Sub lingual tablets are those which can be placed under the tongue for absorption. This allows rapid absorption through the blood stream and has a quick effect. It is especially useful for anti-nausea medications.

Not all medications can be given this way. This is because sometimes the drug gets destroyed by the stomach acids and turn out to be ineffective. The released drug may also not be absorbable by the stomach and intestinal lining which ends up excreted without being metabolised. Sometimes, the drug may damage the intestinal walls if released in the stomach.

  • Subcutaneous injections: the drugs that are injected between the skin and muscle layer are called subcutaneous injections. They do not go to the level of muscles. They are mostly used as chemotherapy support drugs. They are less likely to bleed when compared to intramuscular injections and hence are used in patients who have platelet deficiency.
  • Intramuscular injections: the drug is injected into the muscle past the skin. This method causes bleeding within the muscle. Most chemo drugs cannot be administered in this manner as they may cause damage to the tissue wall.
  • Intravenous injections: the chemo drugs are directly infused into the patient’s veins and is carried to the blood stream. It is the quickest source of administration with modifiable dosage time and duration. Various methods of intravenous injections are given:
  • Angio-catheter: a temporary catheter until drug is administered.
  • PICC lines: these are long plastic catheters that may be placed for a longer duration. It could be used for in-patient treatment or at-home infusions. Fluoroscopy X-rays are done to confirm if the catheter is placed in the right position.
  • Tunnelled catheters: these are catheters placed sub cutaneously, at the chest, and inserted into the superior vena cava. They have multiple lumens or entry points. They can be left in the patient’s body for months to years with low risk of infection. Regular changing of dressings is necessary. It is used in extensive therapies like bone marrow transplants.
  •  Non-tunnelled catheters: these are directly entered into the jugular or subclavian vein to reach the superior vena cava. They are done for emergency or short-term treatments. Infections can spread faster and regular dressings are needed.
  • Port-a-cath: this is a more permanent device. It can be left unchanged for 3-5 years. It is inserted directly to the superior vena cava in the right atrium of the heart.
  • Intraventricular or intrathecal methods: this is when the medication is to be injected into the cerebrospinal fluid. There are two methods, lumbar tap and ommaya reservoir.
  • Intraperitoneal methods: the drug is directly injected into the abdominal cavity and does not go through the stomach or intestines. This is said to reduce the body’s overall exposure to the drug.
  • Intra-arterial methods: in this method, the drug is directly infused to the artery that is feeding the tumour.
  • Intravesicular chemotherapy: the chemo drugs are infused to the urinary bladder through a catheter.
  • Intrapleural chemotherapy:  the chemo drug is injected into the lung cavity or the pleura. It is primarily used in treatment of lung cancers.
  • Implantable chemotherapy treatments: implantable structures are placed into the cavity after surgery for slow release of the drug.
  • Topical chemotherapy treatments: the chemotherapy drugs can sometimes be applied on the skin like a cream. It is used in cases of skin cancers.

 

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What are the side effects of chemotherapy?

Chemotherapy destroys not only the cancer cells but also the normal, healthy viable cells.

Some of the common side effects are:

  1. Hair loss: this is one of the first things noticed by the patient. Hair loss is not only on the scalp, it is throughout the body. Hair loss is a temporary side effect. Hair grows back normally once the treatment is completed. It can be reduced by wearing a cold cap (except in cases of leukaemia). This does not cause any physical health issues but has an adverse effect on the psychology of the patient.

Nails ca become brittle and flaky as well.

  • Nausea and vomiting: almost 65 to 70 %of patients face this problem. Anti-emetics (drugs which prevent vomiting) help to reduce and prevent its re-occurrence when the chemotherapy is completed.
  •  Low white blood cell count: due to chemotherapy drugs, the number of white blood cells are depleted. This condition is called neutropenia. This makes the patient more susceptible to infections. The patient must take utmost care to protect himself from infections by maintaining proper hygiene and cleanliness.
  • Low platelet count: this condition is known as thrombocytopenia. It is a condition in which the patient has reduced platelets due to destruction by the chemotherapeutic agents. This leads to easy bleeding and bruising. This is especially seen when the patient has bleeding gums and small cuts even by razors. Patient needs to take care to not cause any open wounds that might bleed.
  • Low red blood cell count: this is known as anaemia.  Red blood cells carry oxygen to the body. They are rapidly destroyed in the presence of chemo drugs. This reduces the overall oxygen supply to the body and makes the patient dizzy, tired and breathless. Patient is usually advised to take foods rich in iron along with iron supplements and erythropoietin.
  • Mucositis: this is the inflammation of mucous membranes. It could affect the mucous membrane of any part of the body. It usually manifests orally as a burning sensation with blisters, redness, and ulcerations. Drugs may be prescribed for the reduction of inflammation.
  • Appetite loss: chemotherapy and cancer itself can reduce one’s appetite and metabolism. Patients are asked to eat smaller frequent meals and drink fluids through a straw. Patients who are incapable to physically feed on their own are fed through nasogastric tube to maintain nutrition supply.
  • Effect on pregnancy and fertility: patient temporarily loses libido. Many chemotherapy drugs cause deformities in the foetus. Patients are advised to avoid pregnancy during chemotherapy. It can also reduce the fertility in both men and women. 
  • Cognitive and mental health problems: patients have previously reported short term memory, reduced attention span, reduced capacity to multitask, depression and mood swings.

What are the types of chemotherapeutic drugs available?

The drugs used for chemo are derived from many natural and synthetic sources. There are four main groups:

  1. ALKYLATING AGENTS: these are drugs which have a direct impact on the DNA synthesis and disrupts cell cycle at various stages. Ex: chlorambucil, busulfan.
  2. ANTIMETABOLITES: these are chemical substances that have structures similar to that of proteins required for the survival of cancer cells. When the cancer cells absorb them, they do not receive any nutritional value and are made to starve. Ex: purine and pyrimidine antagonist.
  3. PLANT ALKALOIDS: substances that block the ability of cells to grow and multiply. Ex: actinomycin, mitomycin.
  4. ANTITUMOUR ANTIBIOTICS: these are substances which bind to the DNA and stops synthesis of RNA which further deactivates the reproductive capacity of cells. This will reduce the size of tumours and prevent further growth of tumours. Ex: doxorubicin.

 CHEMOTHERAPY FOR SOME COMMON CANCERS:

  1. BREAST CANCER:

When is chemotherapy given for breast cancer?

 It can be given either before or after surgery.

  • Before surgery: chemotherapy is given to reduce the size of the tumour before surgery to have a conservative surgery instead of a complete mastectomy.

It can also be given to patients who have triple negative breast cancer which will not respond to hormone therapy.

  • Post – surgery: chemotherapy can be given after surgical excision to prevent reoccurrence of cancer and to destroy the remnant cancer cells which may be left behind after surgery.
  • Secondary breast cancer: chemotherapy can be given before surgery of cancer which has attacked for the second time and may have spread to other parts.

Commonly used drugs for chemotherapy of the breast:

  • Anthracyclines, such as doxorubicin (Adriamycin) and epirubicin (Ellence)
  • Taxanes, such as paclitaxel (Taxol) and docetaxel (Taxotere)
  • 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)
  • Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)
  • Carboplatin (Paraplatin)

How is the chemotherapy given?

Chemotherapy is given in the form of:

  • Intravenous injections
  • Central venous catheters
  • Central venous access devices

Other symptoms in breast cancer chemotherapy:

  • Menstrual changes: the patient, if of a younger age group may have changes in the menstrual cycle and may even reach menopause at an early age. This may be permanent. It could also lead to loss of fertility.
  • Heart damage: when chemo drugs like doxorubicin is used for prolonged duration or at high doses, it could lead to damage to heart tissue damage. Drugs which are to target HER2 are also to be taken with caution.
  • Nerve damage: drugs like vinorelbine, eribulin, and taxanes are known to affect the neural system outside the spinal cord and brain (peripheral nervous system). This can lead to numbness, tingling sensation, burning, or sensitivity to heat and cold. This usually vanishes once the treatment is stopped.
  • Hand-foot syndrome: drugs like capecitabine and liposomal doxorubicine cause burning, numbness, redness and tingling of skin. It could progress to blistering or swelling which may turn extremely uncomfortable or even painful. Only steroidal creams can be used for symptomatic treatment.
  • Risk of leukaemia: very rarely, chemo drugs may cause bone marrow diseases which might lead to myodysplastic syndrome or even acute myeloid leukaemia. But the benefit from chemotherapy is much higher than the risk of leukaemia.
  • LUNG CANCER:

When is chemotherapy given for lung cancer?

Chemotherapy for lung cancer is given either on it’s own or as an adjuvant. This means that chemo drugs are given along with other modes of treatments like radiation therapy. Surgery is not always recommended especially in extensive cases as it is difficult to excise the tumour without causing significant damage to vital cells.

  • Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy: this is when chemotherapy is given prior to radiation therapy or surgery. It is done to reduce the size of the tumour.
  • Post-surgery chemotherapy: it is done to destroy the remnant cancer cells which may cause remission if left out and could not be excised through surgery.
  •  Chemotherapy with radiation therapy: in cases of stage III lung cancer where surgery is not possible, the doctor may recommend chemotherapy with high dose radiation therapy.
  • Chemotherapy alone: in stage IV lung cancer, chemotherapy is the main mode of treatment. It is also given for palliative therapy in cases of advanced cases.

Chemotherapy is mainly prescribed in non-small cell lung cancers. The drugs used are:

  • Cisplatin
  • Carboplatin
  • Paclitaxel
  • Albumin-bound paclitaxel
  • Docetaxel
  • Gemcitabine
  • Vinorelbine
  • Irinotecan
  • Etoposide
  • Vinblastine
  • Pemetrexed

Most of the times, a combination of two or three drugs are used.

Some of the common side effects are hair loss, fatigue, mouth sores, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea or constipation, increased risk of infections and easy bruising and bleeding.

  • BONE CANCERS:

In case of bone cancers, chemotherapy is not very useful. They do not usually respond to chemotherapeutic drugs. Nevertheless, chemotherapy is used as an adjuvant for osteosarcomas and Ewing sarcoma.

 Common drugs used in treatment of bone cancers:

  • Doxorubicin
  • Cisplatin
  • Etoposide
  • Ifosfamide
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Methotrexate
  • Vincristine

The doctor may prescribe a combination of two or three drugs for the treatment.

Specific side effects:

  • Cisplatin: this drug may cause peripheral neuropathy. This leads to numbness, tingling sensations, pain and burning sensations. It may cause ototoxicity which results in deafness.
  • Ifosfamide and cyclophosphamide: these drugs may damage the urinary bladder lining and cause bloody urine. This is called haemorrhagic cystitis.
  • Doxorubicin: this drug is known to cause damage to the heart.
  • OVARIAN CANCER:

Chemotherapy for ovarian cancer is mostly an adjuvant therapy with surgery or radiation therapy. It is given as intravenous or intraperitoneal route.

Epithelial ovarian cancer in its initial stage is treated with chemotherapy only.

Some of the chemo drugs used in ovarian cancer treatment are:

  • Albumin bound paclitaxel
  • Altretamine
  • Capecitabine
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Etoposide
  • Gemcitabine
  • Ifosfamide
  • Irinotecan
  • Liposomal doxorubicin
  • Melphalan
  • Pemetrexed
  • Topotecan

Some of the common side effects of these drugs are hair loss, weight loss, fatigue, hand-foot syndrome, nausea, vomiting, mouth sores.

  • PROSTATE CANCER:

When is chemotherapy used in prostate cancer?

Chemotherapy is usually used when:

  • Hormone therapy does not have effective results.
  • Adjuvant to hormone therapy
  • Adjuvant to surgical or radiotherapy

Chemotherapeutic drugs used for prostate cancers:

  • Docetaxel
  • Cabazitaxel
  • Mitoxantrone
  • Estramustine

Specific side effects of chemo drugs for prostate cancer:

  • Docetaxel and cabazitaxel: these drugs are known to have adverse allergic reactions and peripheral neuropathy.
  • Mitroxatrone: this drug, in high doses and rare conditions, is said to cause leukaemia.
  • Estramustine: this drug carries an increased risk of clot formation.

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Posted by, magneto
April 1, 2019
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