Aplastic anemia occurs when human body stops producing enough new blood cells. The condition leaves the individual fatigued and more prone to infections and uncontrolled bleeding. Aplastic anemia can be short-lived, or it can become chronic. It can be severe and even fatal. It less common and serious condition, which can develop at any age. Aplastic anemia can occur suddenly, or it can come on slowly and worsen over time. Clinically presented as mild or severe.
Aplastic anemia can have no symptoms but if present, signs and symptoms can include:
2. Shortness of breath
3. Rapid or irregular heart rate
4. Pale skin
5. Frequent or prolonged infections
6. Unexplained or easy bruising
7. Nosebleeds and bleeding gums
8. Prolonged bleeding from cuts
9. Skin rash
The following tests can help diagnose aplastic anemia in the designed diagnostic workup for Aplastic anemia:
Blood tests include complete blood cell count – In aplastic anemia all three of these blood cell levels are low.
Bone marrow biopsy is done by a needle to remove a small sample of bone marrow from a large bone in your body, such as your hipbone. The sample is examined under a microscope to rule out other blood-related diseases. In aplastic anemia, bone marrow contains fewer blood cells than normal.
Treatment provided for aplastic anemia by Top hematologists in Gurgaon is dependent on the severity of condition and demographic details like age.
The treatment options include: observation, blood transfusions, medications, or bone marrow transplantation. Severe aplastic anemia, in which your blood cell counts are extremely low, is life-threatening and requires immediate hospitalization.
Blood transfusions: not cure for aplastic anemia, blood transfusions control bleeding and relieve symptoms by providing blood cells in patient’s bone marrow that isn’t producing. While there’s generally no limit to the number of blood transfusions but complications can sometimes arise with multiple transfusions.
Stem cell transplant: done to rebuild the bone marrow is considered to be the only successful treatment option for people with severe aplastic anemia. A stem cell transplant, also called a bone marrow transplant, is generally the treatment of choice in younger patients.
Immunosuppressants is preferred in cases who can’t undergo a bone marrow transplant or for those whose aplastic anemia is due to an autoimmune disorder. In this the treatment can involve drugs that alter or suppress the immune system (immunosuppressants). Drugs such as cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune) and anti-thymocyte globulin suppress the activity of immune cells that are damaging bone marrow. This helps bone marrow recover and generate new blood cells. Corticosteroids, such as methylprednisolone (Medrol, Solu-Medrol), are often used with these drugs.
Bone marrow stimulants in verities that are including colony-stimulating factors, such as sargramostim (Leukine), filgrastim (Neupogen) and pegfilgrastim (Neulasta), epoetin alfa (Epogen/Procrit), and eltrombopag (Promacta). These drugs help stimulate the bone marrow to produce new blood cells
Antibiotics, antivirals are administered in cases of aplastic anemia. Because the condition has weakens]ed your immune system, which leaves you more prone to infections.
Other treatments for Aplastic anemia caused by radiation and chemotherapy treatments for cancer usually includes follow up observations as it improves after those treatments stop. The same is true for most other drugs that induce aplastic anemia.
For more details please contact Cancer Rounds