All About CAR T Cell Therapy for Cancer Treatment
CAR T cell therapy is a cancer therapy in which patients t-cells are improved in the laboratory to challenge with the cancerous cells. In this procedure, T-cells are taken from the blood cell, and a particular receptor to bind with a specific protein on the patient’s cancer cells is added in the controlled environment. The specific receptor cell CAR is a chimeric antigen receptor that is grown in the laboratory and latterly given to the patient by infusion.
Chimeric antigen receptor or car-t cell receptor is an advanced form of immunotherapy that is utilized to treat altered T cells that is specific to target cancer cells. The immune system is made of some particular cells and essential organs that fight with outer infection and cancer. Some people may have side effects to this therapy, especially after CAR T cell multiplication.
T-cell is mostly called t lymphocytes is a kind of WBC white blood cells that have an integral part in the immune system. T-cells are crafted in a controlled environment laboratory where they genetically engineered by introducing into a DNA to produce new chimeric antigen receptors on the outermost surface of the cell. There are mainly three types of CAR T cell therapies that are approved, and others are under trail that may be proved to be effective in various types of cancer treatments.
Procedure To Kill The Pathogens
T-cell starts killing the infected cells when they perfectly matched the shape of the virus antigen by releasing perforin and cytotoxins. Perforin makes a hole and enters into the cell, and cytokines directly go inside through this hole and start destroying viruses. T-cells are genetically engineered to search and destroy cancer cells in the human body. That’s why sometimes CAR T cell therapy is also called as cell therapy.
T cells are manufactured in bone marrow as like many other blood cells and go through the thymus gland with the bloodstream for maturation. Cancer is one of the leading causes of worldwide death; even numerous cancer therapies are invented in more specific ways. You can produce millions of CAR T cells in the particular laboratory that is delivered to the patients.
Role Of T And B Cells In The Body
T and B cells are one of the primary defender cells of the body as they first recognize any foreign germ cells and respond. Every cell has its specific roles in the body as some T cells like cytokines send chemical instructions to the other parts of the body. Other t-cells directly recognize and kills the virus or parasites. Rests are assisting B-cells in making antibodies that circulate and binds to the invaders. T cells and B-cells make Y shaped proteins called antibodies that work a defense system of the body. First, patients undergo a series of evaluation tests that make sure if CAR T cell therapy is a suitable option or not.
Lymphocytes are a subtype of white blood cells like B-cell, T-cell, natural killer cells, etc.; they cover a significant part of the immune system. The immune system is made up of billions of cells are divided into three major subtypes-
- B lymphocytes- B cells make antibodies to fight with infection
- T lymphocytes- T cells are performing several functions, including assisting B cells to produce antibodies to tackle the epidemic and direct killing of infected cells inside the body.
- Natural killer cells- It also destroys and removes viruses
Steps Involving In Car T Cell Manufacturing
- T cells are picked through apheresis that is a procedure of withdrawing blood components as plasma, platelets, and white blood cells. The resting blood is then back to the body
- The T cells are sent to the drug manufacturing laboratory for genetic engineering by introducing DNA to generate chimeric antigen receptors (CARs)
- The number of genetically manufactured cells is then multiplied in the laboratory. After that, it is being frozen and transferred to the hospital, where it will be introduced into the patients
- CAR T cell eradicates cancer cells and presents in the body for long times after infusion. CAR T cell infusion may vary from patient to patient as it takes 1-21 days.
The CAR T cell therapy has now become the most effective cancer therapy for leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma.
Car T Cell Therapy cost
The chimeric antigen receptor therapy is the new and assured hope for refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia suffering patients. In earlier stages, patients go through bone marrow transplants, which has a comparatively lower cost as compared to T cell therapy. After the approval of CAR T cell therapy by the FDA, the question arises about their estimated value. Competitive pricing would decide that CAR T cell therapy may be used as an alternative to bone marrow transplant.
The current CAR T cell therapy cost is a little expensive. Due to high treatment cost majority of the insurance companies are not including t cell therapy in their health insurance cover — the main concern about the CAR T cell therapy medicine that as costly as their treatment cost.
India became a potential country of CAR T cell therapy because of its high success rate. Lots of clinical trials are going through different multi-specialty hospitals. Their cost may be one of the darker sides of fewer acceptances. Immunotherapy is growing as the new area of cancer care. It is one of the targeted treatment as it only attacks cancerous cells. Most healthcare insurance cover providers are not including such high-cost therapies. CAR T cell therapy has the potential to treat various types of cancers and proved to be the most specific.