Prostate Cancer Overview
Prostate cancer occurs in the prostate gland, which is a small structure in the shape of walnut present in men. Its main function is to produce seminal fluid which in turn nourishes and transports the sperms.
Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly occurring types of cancer mainly in men. Usually, it progresses with slow growth and it is confined to the prostate gland in its initial phase, during that time it might not cause much serious harm. However, while some types of cancer grow slowly and might require minimal or at times even no treatment. Whereas, several other types of it are aggressive in nature and spreads rapidly.
At times, there might not be any visible symptoms besides discomfort and constant pain caused by growing cancer inside the prostate gland.
Early diagnosis of prostate cancer is usually confined to cancer within the gland whereas a delayed diagnosis risks its spread to adjacent tissues and organs. Moreover, early detection also provides early as well as successful treatment chances.
However, this type of cancer does not cause any particular signs and symptoms mainly during its initial phase. Although, later during more advanced stage it might cause signs and symptoms like:
- Trouble urinating
- Blood in semen
- Decreased force in the stream of urine
- Discomfort in the pelvic area
- Erectile dysfunction
- Bone pain etc.
So it is never too early or late to consult a doctor for a second opinion if you notice any such symptoms. It is advisable to take the help of a tumor board which consists of a medical oncologist, radiation oncologist & prostate cancer surgeon to decide the best treatment option for you.
Prostate cancer causes:
The exact cause of prostate cancer is not known. It is due to the mutation of cells which leads to this cancer. Certain risk factors such as genetics, environmental and exposure to radiation may be considered as few of the high-risk factors.
What are the types of prostate cancer?
The type of prostate cancer is based upon the type of cells involved in the cancer formation. After a complete analysis, this can be diagnosed and accordingly a doctor can initiate with a particular treatment. Its types are as follows:
- Acinar adenocarcinoma:
Adenocarcinomas are such cancers that develop in the gland cells which mainly lines up the prostate gland. This one is the most commonly found type of cancer amongst several other types of prostate cancer. Almost every person diagnosed with this cancer falls under this category.
- Ductal adenocarcinoma:
Ductal adenocarcinoma begins in the ducts or tubes which lines up the prostate gland. It usually tends to grow rapidly and spread with more speed than acinar adenocarcinoma. When cancer initiates and progresses it eventually causes pain and blockage at times within the ducts.
- Transitional cell or urothelial cancer:
Transitional cell cancer of the prostate begins mainly in the cells which line up the tube that carries urine to the out from the body, also termed as the urethra. This particular cancer begins in the bladder and usually spreads into the prostate gland. But in very rare cases this cancer begins directly within the prostate gland and spreads towards the bladder via entrance or through adjacent tissues.
- Squamous cell cancer:
These are this prostate cancer which develops from the flat cells that entirely cover the prostate gland. Squamous cell cancer usually tends to grow and spread at a faster speed than adenocarcinoma cancer of the prostate gland. Due to which cancer stages progresses very quickly until the diagnosis is actually made.
- Small cell cancer:
Small cell prostate cancer of the prostate gland is a typical type of neuroendocrine cancer. This cancer initiates in the small round cells of the prostate. It causes malfunctioning of both prostate gland functioning as well as a neurological functioning impairment to some extent.
Prostate cancer treatment
- Surgery: Surgery as a prostate cancer treatment is for men with a localized tumor. The surgery is called radical prostatectomy and is one of the few common treatments for prostate cancer. Your doctor will evaluate the eligibility for prostate surgery based on other conditions such as heart condition.
- Radiotherapy: Radiotherapy as a treatment is used to destroy cancer cells with high beam X-rays. It may also be used in areas where cancer has spread such as the lymph nodes. Just like chemotherapy, radiotherapy or radiation therapy has its own side effects and our doctors will guide you about the risk involved in radiation therapy.
- Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is one of the most common types of treatments deployed in almost all cancers at some stage. The aim of the drugs used as chemotherapy is to shrink the size of the cancer and deter the spread in other parts.
- Cryotherapy: This is used in some selective centers for cancer treatment. Extreme cold temperature is used to freeze cancer and destroy the cells with ablation. Localized or complete cryotherapy may be used in some cases.
- Hormone therapy: Is used to treat prostate cancer ad adjunct and the goal is to block the testosterone which is one of the factors for the growth of cancer cells. Testosterone is developed in the testicles.
In case the prostate treatment requires a combination of more than one type of therapy, our tumor board team can help you identify the best suitable treatment for your case. You can leave your details in the form below or sign up and start talking with an oncologist on our board.